What is the duality principle

duality

duality describes the duality of the material world with all its polarities of light and dark, male and female, beautiful and ugly, etc. On a higher level, however, everything is one in life. Just as a thread penetrates every flower in a garland, so does the one self penetrate all living beings. The world is neither good nor bad. The mind creates good and bad through judgment.
First of all, things are to be seen as part of the world, as part of the divine game, completely neutral in terms of value. If one recognizes the self in everything, then one can also see the good in everything and recognize that everything has its place and its meaning.

Rejection of the dualistic worldview

Transcript of a podcast (2014) by Sukadev

Today it is about an important phase of my spiritual path and also of my teaching, namely the rejection of any form of dualistic worldview. This phase took a long time. In a certain way I can say that from https://www.yoga-vidya.de/kinderyoga/ childhood] on I never thought that there was anyone who was fundamentally bad. I can even say that I was unable to be angry with a person for any length of time and that the feeling of hatred was completely unknown to me. And I've never had anyone I could be permanently angry with. Somewhere that was given to me from childhood. But of course I was also confronted with dualistic worldviews, also in different ways.

Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism

There is such a mixture in yoga. On the one hand there is the monistic worldview, but then sometimes devas and asuras, angels and demons, are spoken of, so that I had to deal with them. But I would like to say right away that I myself reject any form of dualistic worldview. What is a dualistic worldview like? There are different forms of dualistic worldview. One says there is God, he works good, and there is the devil, he works bad. There is the permanent good and the permanent bad and the two fight against each other. World history is a story of the struggle of good against evil. The evil must be weeded out. And only then, when all evil has been eradicated, is there eternal peace. This world view arose historically from Zoroastrianism, later from Manichaeism. For those who want to deal with it a little more: It's not that old yet, sometime in the 6th century BC. emerged, and I think this worldview is the cause of many wars, many disputes and especially for vehement disputes, disputes and wars that have led to the eradication of the enemy.

I have found - and not just me, but also a historical fact and many historians would see it that way by now - there is no one who sees himself as a servant of evil. There is no one who says, “I consciously serve evil.” Or, “I want to serve evil.” And even if there are Satan worshipers, they will say, “And Satan is not evil. Satan is the good. ”There are misguided people, there are people who do bad things, but there is no one who consciously does bad things in order to make bad things happen. Evil as a historical force is an illusion. Everyone wants the good either for themselves or for others, mostly for both. Conflicts arise between people and groups of people who all want the good. And these conflicts would be insoluble if the other is seen as evil. Conflicts also become insoluble when the other is viewed as inferior. This dualistic worldview must be overcome.

At the present time or in a certain phase of spiritual development one has come to the conclusion that there is no evil in the world. In particular, there are no bad guys to be defeated. I think most would agree these days, probably and hopefully everyone reading this text now. There are still fanatics who think others are devils. One must not forget that Luther called the Pope the Antichrist. The Catholics saw Luther as the devil's tool. That was the basis why the Protestants and Catholics tried with this destructive rage to exterminate and exterminate each other, e.g. in the Thirty Years War, on St. Bartholomew's Night and on other occasions. This is the basis for these orgies of slaughter that Christians waged in Palestine during the Crusades. That is the background why these extermination wars were waged against pagans by the Christian side.

For example, it was always said of the Indian peoples that they worship the devil, which is why they must be converted by force. Fortunately nowadays, at least for the majority of religions and especially for the Christians who officially represent the churches today, this form of demonizing one's opponent has gone out of fashion. And then often the evil has been shifted into the psyche. So one no longer says that there are demons outside of us who have to be fought, but that the demons are within us. We have angels and demons. Angels would be love, kindness, patience, sacrifice, devotion, etc. That is all considered good. Then there is the bad: anger, fear, jealousy, greed, envy and these are bad. It is good when we also have the desire to do good. Aggression is bad, addictions are bad, etc.

dualism

And then comes from this dualism that the good must be promoted and the bad must be conquered. This form of the dualistic world view, one could also say the dualistic view of the psyche, is problematic. It can be said that the eradication of the bad and the promotion of the good work for some, and some may even come to the highest realization with it, for the majority it does not work, and especially not permanently. It is a constant struggle that is linked to the feelings of sin and guilt. And if you seem to be winning the battle within yourself, it comes up against the other in the form. This struggle against certain parts of oneself also leads to hatred in the world. People hate in others what they cannot allow themselves to be. And often enough the struggle creates a shadowy side that comes into life in a different way.

For the vast majority of people, fighting bad is not the way to achieve good, nor is it the way to serenity. On the contrary, fighting something only leads to more fighting. So the realization in me has become stronger and stronger that a dualistic worldview has to be overcome in every respect. As I said above, the dualistic worldview is historically not that old. The older religions paid little attention to fighting evil. You can find that in both the Indian and the Chinese scriptures, even in Judaism in the older parts of Satan and demons was not so much talked about, and even when Satan and demons were mentioned, it was not so absolute and not even permanent evil. Only Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism of the 6th century BC. made of it the struggle between the eternally good and the eternally evil.

These then spread to Christianity and Islam. And especially in Christian spirituality, the fight against the diabolical, the satanic, was a main theme. As I said, this fight cannot be won by the majority in the long term. And from this dualism, Christianity presumably invented the religious war on a large scale, although Christianity belongs to the most peaceful religions in terms of the founder of the religion, in terms of Jesus Christ. But it was the struggle to save the souls of everyone. They must be violently fought and converted so that they do not fall victim to the devil and then are not put into eternal damnation. So even if Christians did the worst things, they saw themselves as servants of God.

This idea that people or a group of people are of the devil and must therefore be fought has partly remained in the post-Christian cultures derived from Christians. You can say that the Nazis took it over: “The Jews are to blame for everything, and there is inferior life.” Later the capitalists against the evil communists. The communists against the capitalists. And more recently there have also been American presidents who have spoken of the realm of evil and the axis of evil. All of this leads to little good, all of which leads to problems.

The good manifests itself awkwardly

My claim is that there is only the good, but the good can awkwardly manifest itself to cause suffering. Nobody really wants evil. No group of people wants evil. There is no negative force trying to influence people. There are no demons incarnating anywhere to do bad things. You can think for yourself: Do you perhaps believe in evil after all? Do you think there is such a thing as an evil force that you have to fight against? Do you think there are negative forces influencing you? Do you think there are bad people? Do you think there are groups of people who are evil? Consciously or unconsciously, maybe that's in you. Then you can think about it: is that really true? You can analyze if you look closely at the group that you may experience as bad: does they really mean it or, from their point of view, does they mean it well?

I do not deny that there are crimes. There are great crimes and the Nazis are a great example of that. There are people who torment others. Even today, even in our part of the world, there is child abuse, there is rape, there is murder, there is manslaughter, there is torture, etc. There is all of this. But my claim is that even though people do bad things, they do not mean it badly. Even if someone does bad out of revenge, you can say that he means it badly, but he actually wants to bring about justice. From his or her point of view, he or she is doing good. With that in mind, I encourage you to be aware, if there is anyone you think is evil, try putting yourself in their shoes and see if, from their point of view, maybe they are Good wants. Try to understand.

Understanding does not mean forgiving everything. Understanding does not mean not engaging in what is good either. As I said, there may be people who do bad things even if, from their point of view, they think they should have done it. And they may have to be locked away, trying to help them grow beyond that. Sometimes you have to stop people from doing bad things. But we don't have to hate anyone, we don't have to fight anyone. And we don't have to fight ourselves either.

Viveka Chudamani - There is no such thing as duality

- Commentary on Viveka Chudamani verse 393 by Sukadev Bretz -

With many statements the Shruti (the Upanishads) explains the absence of duality with the sentence “where there is nothing else”, ecetera in order to remove all false projections.

Overcome all delusions

Kriya-samabhiharena over and over again the statement, different repetitions, but over and over again the same thing. There is anya (something) else. Well anya - there is nothing else. It teaches that there is no such thing as duality. Ultimately, everything is one. The idea that there is duality is meitya, delusion. It is also transmission (adhyasa) and deception (mithya). One has to overcome all these false transmissions in order to realize that behind everything is the one infinite, cosmic reality.

Find out! Live from it! Be aware: You are the immortal self, the Atman.

Preliminary acceptance of duality

We are all one, no one is different

- Section from the book: Yoga of Love by James Swartz -

Just as we tentatively accept the idea that vedānta is a philosophy, we also tentatively accept the darśana of devotion view that the apparent duality between bhakta and God is an actual duality. This view is used for emotional cleansing and the expansion of the intellectual understanding of the essence of reality. Accepting permanent duality is a problem because it causes constant suffering. The philosophy of devotion contradicts the nondual vision. This is based on the three authoritative source texts - the emotional upaniṣads, the "Bhagavad-gītā" and the "Brahma-sūtra" - and is preserved and kept alive to this day by a unique guru-disciple line. If we observe the following four basic principles of the vedānta view, they will serve as powerful filters as we study the literature on religious devotion.

See also

literature

  • Swami Sivananda, The Power of Thought (2012)
  • Swami Sivananda, Gods and Goddesses in Hinduism (2008)
  • Swami Sivananda, Bhakti and Sankirtan, Ed .: The Divine Life Society, 2007
  • Swami Sivananda, Inspirational Stories (2005)
  • Swami Sivananda, Japa Yoga (2003)
  • Swami Sivananda, Divine Knowledge (2001)
  • Swami Sivananda, autobiography by Swami Sivananda (1999)
  • Swami Sivananda, Shrimad Bhagavad Gita. Explanatory text and commentary by Swami Sivananda (1998)
  • Swami Sivananda, Thoughts on Contemplation (1996)
  • Swami Sivananda, Hatha Yoga. The Safe Path to Good Health, Long Life, and Awakening of the Higher Forces (1964)
  • Swami Sivananda, Sadhana - A textbook on techniques for spiritual perfection
  • James Swartz: Yoga of Love

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This seminar is part of an intensive training course for yoga teachers. You deal intensively with the Bhagavad Gita: recitation, treatment and interpretation of this "highest ...