How does a cow produce milk 1

Cow project

When we say "milk" we always mean cow's milk. All other types of milk - from sheep, goats, mare, mouse or humans - are called more precisely - as sheep's milk, mare's milk or even mother's milk. Milk is produced in the mammary glands of female mammals. Milk is the basic nutritional basis for all newborns, from the day they are born to the age at which the small mammals can eat on their own. The first milk is not only particularly rich in nutrients but also in immune substances that determine whether the newborn can grow up healthily. This first milk is called colostrum and, in cows, also colostrum. The intake of colostrum within the first 24 hours is very important because only during this time do the immune substances pass into the calf's blood. The cow gives colostrum for a total of five days, followed by the well-known white cow's milk.

The udder and milk production

Cow's milk is produced in the udder. The function of the udder corresponds to the milk-producing organs of all female mammals. The cow udder contains an immeasurable number of very small milk sacs. The milk vesicles filter those ingredients from the blood that make up milk in their entirety: protein, fat and lactose, calcium and other minerals as well as many vitamins. The udder consists of these milk vesicles and a finely branched system of blood vessels as well as an equally branched system of milk ducts. The fine milk ducts absorb the milk, flow together and flow into the four teats of the cow udder.

So blood becomes milk. 400 liters of blood flow through the udder to produce one liter of milk. This achievement is also admirable because it is achieved by normal dairy cows 300 days a year and that for almost their entire cow life.

High performance cows

25 years ago, farmers were proud of dairy cows with a lifetime production of 100,000 liters of milk. The cows had given this amount of milk after 15 to 20 years of life. Today there are high-yielding cows that produce up to 30,000 liters of milk per year. That's 100 liters a day! The heart of such a cow has to pump 40,000 liters of blood through the udder per day. No wonder that a high-performance cow is completely exhausted after a few years. The high-performance cow could have raised 60 calves with the amount of milk produced in one year. The wild cattle or the aurochs gave around 500 liters of milk per year. A good dairy cow in India today gives 1500 to 2000 liters of milk a year. Nevertheless, India is the largest milk producer in the world!

Milk, butter and egg white

A modern dairy cow today gives an average of 50 liters of milk a day. 1 liter of milk contains 4% fat and 3.5% protein. The cow loses 2 kg of fat a day with the milk, which corresponds to about 10 packets of butter! Their daily milk contains 1.75 kg of pure protein - as much as in 230 chicken eggs! The dairy cow has to produce these quantities of milk ingredients every day and eat a corresponding amount beforehand! And - she can't do that with hay and grass. The modern dairy cow is fed completely different feed.

A happy cow in the pasture only gives 20 to 25 liters of milk. The milk of the grazing cow is richer, with more protein and healthier fat. The 5 packets of butter and all the protein that this cow produces every day in the form of milk are made from grass!