Who invented Mathcad

Chapter 8.5.1 - History


Historical development of the law of induction

In 1831 Faraday discovered electrical induction. With that he laid the foundation
for the electrotechnical energy industry.
Even today you can still see its simple generators, motors and transformers in the
See Royal Institution. In discovering electrical induction, Faraday was able to
fall back on important physical discoveries by Oersted and Ampère.

Hans Christian Oersted

Danish physicist and chemist.

Born: August 14th, 1777 Rudkoebing
Died: March 9th, 1851 in Copenhagen

He studied medicine, physics and astronomy. Worked as a pharmacist but then devoted himself to physics. From 1806 he is a professor of physics.

In 1820, Oersted discovered the deflection of a compass needle by an electric current. Thus the connection between electricity and magnetism was found.

André Marie Ampère

French mathematician and physicist.

Born: January 22nd, 1775 Lyon
Died: June 10th, 1836 Marseile

He is considered an important universal scholar and founder of electrodynamics.
Ampère continued Oersted's experiments. In 1820 he discovered that current-carrying conductors can be moved by magnets brought close to them and that current-carrying conductors also exert magnetic forces on one another.

Michael Faraday

English physicist and chemist.

Born: September 22nd, 1791 Newington
Died: 08/25/1867 Hampton Court

Faraday is completing an apprenticeship as a bookbinder. He then trained as an autodidact in physics and chemistry. In 1813 he became a laboratory assistant at Davy at the Royal Institute in London. From 1824 he is a member of the Royal Society. In 1825 he succeeded Davy as director of the laboratory of the Royal Institution, of which he was a member until 1858. From 1827 to 1861 he was a professor of chemistry.

Faraday investigated the effect discovered by Oersted in 1821. In doing so, he recognized that three variables interact here: the current in the wire, the force on the magnetic needle and the mediating, invisible, nameless medium (magnetic field). He recognized that the three quantities were distinguished by their magnitude and direction and that they were perpendicular to each other (three-finger rule of the right hand). He also built a kind of electric motor: an electrical conductor that constantly revolves around a permanent magnet.
Oersted's experiment had shown that an electric current creates a magnetic field. From 1822 Faraday tried to achieve the opposite effect, namely to generate an electric current with a magnetic field. He initially concentrated on the stationary case, as is also the case with the Oersted experiment, in which the current is not switched on or off.
This did not produce any results.
On 08/29/1831 Faraday finally had success. He worked with an iron ring on which two copper coils were wound. One of the
He connected coils with an ammeter (galvanometer), the other coil was connected to a power source. In the stationary case
Faraday couldn't see anything. But when switching the current on and off, the galvanometer indicated a current. This was the
Looking for a solution: It was not the magnetic field that generated a current, but the change in the magnetic field over time when building up or breaking down,
caused by switching the electric current on and off, the current generated in the coil in the galvanometer.

Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction after ten years of hard work. Within a few months he was able to
to build simple generators, electric motors and transformers.

Faraday investigated the magnetic field with further experiments. He succeeded in using the "lines of force" of the magnetic field with iron arrow shavings
to make visible.

The industrial use of the law of induction

The first power station, Pearl Street Station in New York, was built in 1882 by Thomas Alva Edison. The station was equipped with six generators that were powered by steam. In the beginning, these provided the electricity required for lighting purposes. It was only later that power was supplied to industry. The generation of electrical energy was expanded rapidly in the years that followed and our lives can no longer be imagined without it.

Thomas Alva Edison

American inventor and industrialist.

Born: February 11th, 1847 Milan (Ohio)
Died: October 18, 1931 West Orange (N.J.)

Edison started out as a newspaper boy, then worked as a telegraph operator. From 1868 he lived in New York, where he developed into the greatest inventor in the USA. He received about 1,300 patents. Among other things, he invented the carbon filament lamp for lighting purposes and constructed the first steam-powered dynamo.

Chapter 8.5.1 - History