What was the Maltese hawk made of

Franz von Kobell
Franz von Kobell

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Falcon and heron.

Two birds have played a role in the world for centuries, as neither the eagle of Zeus, the owl of Minerva, nor the proud peacock of Juno or the pigeons of the rosy Cypris can boast. These birds are the hawk and the heron. The bouquet has also had its time, and what the ladies like to decorate, of course, always moves the world, but he cannot be seen against the named ones, and when capercaillie, pheasant, snipe & c. If something has counted, it is not enough; even the much-sung nightingale, with its melancholy songs, on the other hand, appears only in the position of a swarming chambermaid and the parrot as an insignificant motley children's game.

What dog and deer did for parforce hunt on solid ground in the woods and fields, that was in the realm of the air for the falcon and the heron. In the absence of the latter, or for a change, other birds and even rabbits and hares were hunted, and this hunting was called baizen or the baize. Likewise, as substitutes for the falcon, the word falcon is said to be derived from the Icelandic d. H. follow, come here; Habicht from the Gothic d. i. hold and herons, among the ancients Raiger of the orderly flight, as the ancient Teutons called what was in a line. Now comes around 1350 at Chunrat von Megenberg Reygel and Reigel written before, but in the Upper Bavarian vernacular, the like is included egg Written words are also spoken as they are written while the heron Roaga is spoken. This happens with all words that started around the 16th century with ai were written. Hence Roaga, Zoaga, Loab (Brod) for Raiger, Zaiger, Laib, Geiger, Leib (), on the other hand, is not pronounced Goaga or Loab, but as it is written. It can therefore not fit Raiger, because the later spelling seems to have marked the difference in pronunciation more clearly than that of 1350 and the spoken oa belongs to the ai. the hawk, sparrowhawk and other predators of this kind are used.

Who does not know the old pictures and engravings which depict such hunts! Chivalrous hunters on horseback and neat ladies on their parents, falconers partly mounted, partly on foot and merrily jumping dogs, so it goes out in the stately procession to the wide plain of the hunting ground, where the art of riding is to be tested where it is the competition is to be the first to pull the heron out of the clutches (Hands) of the falcon to bring it to his master or his lady, because if he is still fresh enough he can pull the silver ring on the long stand again, like an order of garter, and tell his wild comrades his adventure. Or when at the grass meal the word "grass mark" can already be found in the kitchen master's instructions from 1589. at the feet of the chosen one a young hunter with languid eyes plays the lute while she is flirting with the fan in gentle embarrassment, next to bearded fellows of different mood the tankards to rise with sparkling wine and drink a hunter's salvation and how so many scenes of this kind have been painted. There is much to be raved about and fantasized about. He doesn't know what it's all about foraging, who only thinks of the game and the way to fell it, he is like a traveler who has his way and his goal alone in mind and does not see the flowers that he passes by, and not hear the birds singing in the trees, and not mirrors and echoes in their breasts, lust for so many who live around him and weave in the world.

The real hunter is not so one-sided, and songs of love and wine like to join his hunting songs, yes, before he gets to the shot, he has often shot himself and yet has no fear of it. The old oaks from Westerholz near Landsberg could probably tell about it; there the soaring birds nestled and dwelt there for centuries, around which there was once so many joy as well as work and plague. There were also numerous herons around Munich and in the area of ​​Wartenberg near Erding, and just as they were carefully looked after, so it happened elsewhere with their enemies, the falcons and their relatives, who were brought together Spring gameThe word feather game was also used for a kind of light ball with wings that was thrown to lure and catch the released falcon. called. But this was not always the case. Around 1750, a “feather spinner” was employed during the monastery hunt at Tegernsee, “that is such a hunter. which, for the sake of better preservation of the feathered game meat, was mainly incumbent on the hawks, then to shoot other birds of prey. "

The study of these birds, the training of the hawks or the »Ablation“As it was called huntedly, their care, the trade in them and their hunts have occupied many thousands of people throughout their lives, and enormous sums of money have been spent on them. Just as horses and dogs are valued and classified according to ability and beauty, so are the hawks. The types commonly mentioned are as follows:

The Saker Falcon, Sacrifalke, wherever the Ger- or Geyerfalke, Gerfaut, is that and Schlegel distinguishes the white falcon from Greenland and from Northern America; the Icelandic which is unique to Iceland; the gyrfalcon from the Alps of Norway and the saker falcon from Hungary, from the Urals and from Tartary. Its Arabic name is Ssakar and the name Saker Falcon is probably related to it. The Emperor Friedrich II derives from - holy, or thinks it could also refer to κύριος, - Lord, Master. The white hawk of Turkistan, which is said to live in the snow mountains, belongs here and is called Sonkar in Persian. It was so valued in the East that one paid a thousand ducats for the piece. In the West the saker falcon is also kept very high, and if it is perfectly in its kind and has been paid for up to a thousand guilders and more. It was obtained from Iceland via Denmark, from Sweden and Norway, Ireland and from Tartary. It was used especially for heron dressing, also on kites and bustards. The peregrine falcon, the common noble falcon, became the same hunt as the previous one, also for cranes. When the hunt hit the ground, the dogs helped to catch it. second hand. The blue-footed, sucker falcon, swimmer, was used on hares and partridges.

The hawk was useful on hares, pigeons, partridges, pheasants, also on herons and cranes at baize. Its Arabic name is Basi (Plurale Busat), from which the English buzzard, as Hammer thinks, originated, and perhaps the German "Baizvogel".

The sparrowhawk, was used to bait quail, lark & ​​c. In Bavaria, few of the falcon species nest, most of them only occur at the time of the stroke and were caught with a pigeon and a batting net, as is still the case today.

Besides others, a kind of Merlin or Schmerlin was used, as mentioned in "Tristan und Isolde":

"There was also a nice Vederspiel,
Valkan, pilgrims a lot,
Smirline and Sperwaere & c. «

With the Orientals it is said of the Schmerlin:

"The Schmerlin is of pure morals,
Of beautiful growth and quick steps,
Two onyxes are eyes,
The cut in the shape of a cone. "

The training of these birds was a most difficult and hard one. The hawk began to be so exhausted by hunger and sleep behavior that the wild bird, as Flemming says, "is suddenly deprived of its complete memory and imagination, contemplation and memory, and weakened so that it cannot have time and opportunity, to reflect on his nature and to remember what he was previously accustomed to do in his freedom, which transmutes his nature so that he knows nothing other than how he must be brought up by man to submit to his will. "Three days and nights And what is more, the falcon was not allowed to rest, and the falconers had to relieve themselves in order to endure it, while the hood was put on him and it is astonishing that he and other things did not forget his love of hunting over it. After such torture he was treated very gently and caressingly when taming was noticed, and only when he had become completely familiar and obedient with his falconer was he allowed to catch a partridge or the like and trained him further, with too hot or cold days for hunting were avoided, also bad weather, so as not to scare him.

How it was then practiced on the Baize can be seen from a report from Kassel dated November 18, 1629 to Landgrave Wilhelm V. “As a result of the princely order, Colonel von Uffeln and I (the reporter) were outside with the falconer yesterday afternoon been. He has taken out the most beautiful of the two white and colored ones and of the other two who has the most white feather and is the most sprinkled. So he also only has one heron, namely the one that never really wants to etch (took him with him), and kept it around his neck with a dyed linen cloth so that the hawks cannot bite him to death, but the heron has a beak on the tips of the heron he stuck and tied two small tubes of elderberry so that he could not sting the falcons. So we rode out into the courtyard meadows, first of all took in the black or spotty falcon, which he trusts the most, let the heron sit down maybe about forty paces from him and give him a little twine or strong twine, with a small one below A little ball, tied to one leg and then chased up, which soon flew towards the pond. As soon as he took off the hood of the falcon and saw the heron, he flew after him fairly fresh, but before he came to him, the heron sat down and dove down when the falcon shot at him, the falcon immediately sat down on him, got his neck and tugged on it, but it went back because of the cloth; So we ran quickly to the falcon with a colored chicken, pulled the heron out from under him again, and after the falcon had bitten, he carried him on one side and picked up the white one. The previous trial was held with the same, went up again with him, and let the heron come up again. The falcon looked around, but did not fly from his hand until the heron, which took its flight again to the pond, although it did not fly as far this time as the first, had sat down, and it flew almost fresher than the one others added; Herr Heron did not dive this time, had already become wiser, defended himself, and when the falcon wanted to hit him, he bravely stabbed him on the chest, but because the tubers of elderberry were on the tips, he could not the falcon and he was very angry about it, fell on him, but could do him just as much as the heron did him. The falconer was very happy when he saw this falcon doing so, since he has never wanted to do so much, and then hero he has placed more trust in the sprinkled than in the white. Now thinks and considers it certain that these two should become very delicious birds. "Landau a. a. O.

A perfect falconer must also have extensive knowledge of recognizing and curing the manifold diseases of feather play.

It is interesting to see how the studies of the falcon have been made with equal care in the most varied of countries, and how the same rules of domestication & c. emerged from it. A Turkish falcon book from the 14th century, which Hammer-Purgstall only made known in 1840, shows clearly that the German falcon hunters learned a lot from the Orientals at the time of the Crusades.

At the heron baiz, the herons were hunted up by the raging dogs, then at the right time the falcon was thrown from the falconer, and now the spectacle began. As soon as it saw the falcon, the heron began to soar and to swing higher and higher that it could hardly be seen. The falcon, however, followed him as fast as an arrow and with various maneuvers and turns he tried to get over the heron, and if he succeeded in doing this, he pushed down on him and made various attacks to catch him with his fangs, whereby the heron himself with his pointed beak fought as best he could. Many a falcon, especially a young one, was speared on the heron's beak, but a skilled warrior finally grabbed his opponent, and now they both came or fell with confused flapping of their wings. "Then there it goes," says Flemming, "again a violent piquing, who regrets the regrets, who lies down, everyone wants to be first & c." In some respects riding was more dangerous than parforce hunt, because one almost always raised one's eyes in the air to see the falcon and ignored ditches and obstacles in the ground above it. So strange and delightful was the scene of the fight that Flemming thinks it is very doubtful whether the spectators have looked at heaven all their lives, out of a fervent desire to come in, as unused as it was in such a fight and race.

A good falcon was therefore a precious jewel, and so it says in the Turkish falcon book mentioned: “Muchtaß Risihat said: we have heard that the Son of Man is proud of three things: when he comes to power, when he carries good falcons and when he rides a good horse. "

But more than anything else, its story speaks for the joys of this hunt, so a sketch of it should follow here.

The hawk hunt is ancient, if not sure where and when it started. With a beautiful picture Johann Feyerabendt (1582) speaks of the old age of the Baize by saying that “the highest god and ore hunter himself, through his power and command with his falcon to the storm wind Countless quail descending from heaven into the wilderness, too good for the children of Israel, to rain and beyssen to let."

Usually Aristotle is mentioned as the first to mention falcon hunting. But what he says about it is not falcon hunting as it is otherwise understood. It says: “In the Thracian city, which was otherwise called Kedropolis, people hunt the smaller birds in swamps together with the falcons. They hit the reeds and bushes with stakes so that the birds fly out. Immediately the hawks hovering overhead hunt them down. But the birds, full of fear, flee quickly to land again, where the people then kill them with sticks and share the prey with them. They throw them down some of the birds, which immediately seize them. ”So we only used the chance presence of falcons to frighten the little birds and thus to get hold of them more easily. However, according to other sources, it is very probable that the actual falcon hunt (the artificial one) was practiced in the Orient at an early stage.

Hammer's Turkish book of falcons mentions that a Greek king named Demetrios was the first to hunt with the falcon, another king Theophrastus had given the falcon the tracking dog, and when the hunt came to Persia, the sparrowhawk was recognized and fit for it trained weasels used instead of dogs. The builder of Istambol (Constantinople), Constantine the Great (around 325 AD), was the first to hunt with the strangler falcon.

From later reports it is known that the Persians particularly valued the Muscovite falcons and those from the mountains of the Caucasus. They were also used on red deer, when they were trained to sit on the head of the rather tiredly hunted animal, where the hunter was then quite confused by the catches and the flapping of the wings, giving the hunter time to approach. Usually several hawks helped. Chardin relates that they were sometimes even trained to attack people in the same way.

How high the value of worn falcons was already held in the early sixth century is proven by the Burgundian laws, which stipulate that a falcon thief who could not pay the fine had to have 6 ounces of meat chopped out of his chest from the stolen bird. The theft of a hunting dog they punished in a disgraceful way. It says: (of the dog) and that hunting was already widespread at that time, testifies that a synod of the Bishops of Burgundy in 517 forbids the clergy from keeping hunting dogs and falcons. This prohibition, which later repeated several councils, was so fruitless that the clergymen soon practiced the baize in the same way as the secular ones, and there are enough examples of how passionately it happened, even if the statement that a bishop should not be true von Auxerre had a person crucified around 1531 for the sake of some stolen falcons.

The Bavarian laws from the 7th century mention the hawkhounds, "Habuchhund," A distinction was also made between the crane hawk, the goose hawk, the duck hawk, and Charlemagne ordered the game of feathers to be cherished.

The Celts in Wallis and the Anglo-Saxons were also familiar with falcon hunts, and St. Bonifacius, who came to Germany from England in the 8th century, sent an English (Anglo-Saxon) king Ethelbald, and Ethelbert to Andern, two worn falcons and a hawk.

The German emperors Heinrich I, the Vogler († 933), Heinrich III. († 1056), Friedrich I. Barbarossa († 1190) and Friedrich II. († 1250) are named as avid falcon hunters. Friedrich Barbarossa himself knew the art of training or wearing the falcon, and Friedrich II wrote a work on falcon hunting (), which Gaston Phebus, Count von Foix, translated into French at the end of the 14th century. Friedrich places the hunt with birds of prey much higher than any other, because it takes place without artificial instruments, namely hunting weapons, nets, etc., and without animals that easily get used to people, among which he mentions, besides the dogs, leopards and lynxes. Art has also brought it to the point that these birds do much more in catching than they are accustomed to do according to their nature, uneducated. His writing is very detailed and spreads about the structure of birds, their food, their migration and especially about the training of the various falcons without any actual description of the hunt. Friedrich says that when he crossed the sea he first got to know the falcon cap from Arab falconers. Friedrich even fought in the face of the enemy in war.

The Crusades made a major contribution to the training of falconry, as it was in full bloom in the Orient in the 12th century. The traveling knights often took falcons and dogs with them from their homes, as did King Philip II of France and Richard the Lionheart. During the siege of Ptolomais (Acre) around 1189, a white falcon of particular beauty escaped from the former on the walls of the city and the besieged caught him. The king offered them a thousand gold guilders for the bird, but they did not return it. Interesting is the report given by the Venetian Marco Polo, who traveled to Turkistan, Tartaria and China in the 13th century, of the falcon hunts that the descendants of the founder of the Mongolian Empire, Genghisan, practiced at that time. “In the beginning of March, it is said, the great Khan of Chanbaligh sets out with about ten thousand fowlers, who carry hawks, hawks, gyrfalcons and other birds of prey (shekere) trained to hunt, five hundred in number. The emperor sits in a wooden litter, carried by four elephants, gilded on the inside and covered with lions' skins, and for his amusement has a few guides and twelve exquisite hawks with him. In addition to the elephant-bearers, many nobles and soldiers ride, who, when they see pheasants, cranes and other birds, tell the fowlers around the emperor. They notify the emperor of this, they open the imperial litter and let go of the hawks and falcons, while the emperor sits on mats and watches the birds play. In addition to these ten thousand fowlers, ten thousand other people accompany the emperor, who roam the Haiden in pairs and follow the flight of the falcons and hawks in order to help them if necessary; these are called Taskaor d in Tartar. i. Guardians by calling back the exuberant birds with a certain whistle.

It is not necessary that the fowler who let the bird out should follow it, as these (the keepers) see to it that the birds are caught and that they are not damaged or lost; those closest to the endangered bird are required to jump by it. Every wild bird carries a small silver plaque with the sign of its master or bird on its foot, so that it can be returned to its owner. ”Another traveler Odorico von Udine and similar hunts took place at the end of the 14th century under Timur and Bajazet instead. The latter kept seven thousand hawk-hunters and six thousand hound-keepers, a whole army for this pleasure. It is a gift from Charles VI. recorded by France to Bajazet, which consisted of falcons and hawks and gloves, which were set with pearls and precious stones and were used to carry the birds.

In the 14th century the falcons of the Prussian lands had a special reputation and there existed their own falcon schools, such as a famous one at the grand master's court in Marienburg. The well-worn falcons went as gifts from the Grand Masters to the German courts, England, France, Hungary & c. The falconers carried them on frames up to 10 on these trips, Cheese called as you often see it in pictures. A similar gift came to the Dukes of Bavaria around 1399. Falcon hunting is also mentioned in the statutes of the Knights' Institute in Ettal founded by Ludwig the Bavarian in 1332. Ibid XXXIII, 313 in a comparison about Burkberg Castle "and the vederspiel is common."

"Even the knights should all have fun, with Pyrsen, with Paizzen, with hunting" & c. and the master should have a mounted hunter with twelve dogs and a lead dog, and a mounted falconer with two running servants.

When it was said above that the Baizlust in Friedrich II went so far that he cultivated it himself during the war, it does not appear in isolation and Eduard III. of England († 1376) did the same with his lords in the campaign against France and brought not only dogs and falcons, but also herons with them, so as not to be without the game to be hunted if necessary. At that time the English bishops and abbots also made their official trips in the company of the Federspiel and the herons.

Petrarch († 1374) comments on the Baizlust of that time with the words: “God gave you two hands, where are they? one holds the horse's bridle, the other carries the hawk. "The clergy's lust for falconry is also characterized by a French poem from the 15th century which says:

(Corvin-Wiersbitzki Sporting Almanac 1844.)

The beloved falcons themselves were taken to church and this was even done by clergymen. Cyriacus Spangenberg gets excited about the hunts of those times by drawing the hunter in his "Jagdteufel" (1587) with the words:

When Frederick the Armed Forces entered the Concilium at Constanz in 1417, he had falcons and hawks performed to him.

The Emperor Maximilian was eager to do baizen on his travels and in war. From this princely hunter it is said in the Weißkunig: “For a while the young white kunig read in ainem puech darynn these words were written, you kunig nym was, the fool and the deer and delight in the jaded, which is to be granted to you, that you do not fall into the sinful and worldly vices, this young king nam dise loves to hear & c. ”He now also learned the falcon baize and drove it to his end. He had “Saygkehr valcken” (the saker falcons) come from the “tatterey”, “from the heathen, from Reyßen (in 1505, through his envoy Hartinger, he asked Grand Duke Johann in Moscow for white falcons), from Prussia and from Rhodys & c. «

The grand masters of Rhodus supplied him with falcons as far as Venice for a cent of copper. The Venetian authorities sent 12 "Säckher" from Cyprus in consideration of the use of the roads & c. in Austria. "The Grand Master's item from Prussia also gives a Prince of Austria to protect money from his order: 12 Stuckh Valkhenn," of whom it is praised that they are the best "for raiders," the emperor also sent Brabant falconers to Norway and Denmark to buy falconers and held 15 falcon masters and 60 falconers. In all his realms he kept herons and wild ducks. The Bavarian falcon and falconer stations are also mentioned in his memory book. "To Augsburg, it is said, and two day trips of it in the Allgäu and Oberlech one vahs Valkhenn, its as good as the one in Alsace". Furthermore, "Item in the Margraviate of Purgau, if you are from Austria, you should give your valkhner a leger to Nördlingen, to Aicha in Payern and to Lankweit, which runs above Regensburg." So were stations for the falconers in Alsace, Brabant, Flanders & c .

The emperor's young wife, the beautiful Maria of Burgundy, also rode to the falcon baize and lost her life as a result of such a hunt (1482) because she fell from her horse by tearing the saddle girth.

The expelled Rhodes knights, whom he made the island of Malta to reside in, had to send a white falcon to Maximilian's successor Charles V every year. Falcon and hawk fiefs were formed or the like were given in return for a tribute to these Baiz birds, as well as enfeoffments for the falcon catch took place.

Pope Leo X passionately paid homage to the falcon hunt, which he often practiced at Viterbo and was such an avid hunter that it is said of him: "that nobody could have a good word from him if he did not wish to do so ( during the hunt), just as, on the contrary, everything was easy to get from him if he was happy with it. "

At that time, falconers were not infrequently among the highest ranks and Queen Maria of Hungary, sister of the aforementioned Emperor Charles V and later governor of the Netherlands, frequented this hunt, as she called herself "lover of the woad crew". She often received falcons from Duke Albrecht of Prussia and complained to him in 1546 that they had been exchanged for worse ones by the falconers. In order to prevent such fraud, a shock spring was torn out from each sent falcon and included in the donation letter, whereby one could convince oneself of the authenticity of the falcon that arrived. Queen Elizabeth of England appointed a Lady Marie Canterbury as head hunter and head of falconry, Lucretia Borgia sent falcons to Elisabeth Este von Gonzaga in 1494; the King of Denmark in 1670 Icelandic falcons to Landgrave Sophie von Hessen; Anna von Mecklenburg excelled in falcon hunting & c. Images from the 13th and 14th centuries often show women on horseback with a falcon in hand. This participation of the ladies, as it made the falcon baize possible against other hunts, brought the delightful occupation with the feather game in France also in a special reception. The gallant and chivalrous Franz I, known as the father of the hunt, had 50 falcon masters and 300 baiz birds. The hawk hunt was given a special name or hawking higher up.

Gaston de Foix wrote a long poem about it and at that time a ceremony was in use that took place on the feast of the Invention of the Cross at the beginning of May, when the time for the falcons' flails to go off at the end of July. began, the stag hunters with the sound of a trumpet chased the falcon masters from the court with green pigtails, as their hunt was now beginning, in autumn on the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (September) it happened the other way round and the falconers drove the other hunters out. Incidentally, the baize was not carried out at the same time in different places and there are many deviations in it.

Louis XI. and Louis XIII. were great falconers. The latter held a falconry of 140 falcons in 1621, the most excellent of which had distinctive names such as. One raves about these hawks and their glory by saying:

“Just as the angels stand with half-opened wings around the throne of the Eternal and praise it with sweet melodies: our king is surrounded by an infinite number of noble sailors of the air, sometimes talkative, sometimes in the hands of the falconer, always awake, always ready and ready to go Attack of the feathered forage at will. "Then he exclaims:" How can another species (birds) be compared with them, be it faithfully, be it in the rapidity with which they rise to heaven and straight look into the sun, be it in the fight to which they are called, be it in the friendly approach when the voice of meekness calls it! They have all the qualities of majesty, and they are rightly called the kings of the birds. 'He recalls how their domestication is not that of ordinary other animals, and how their obedience arises more from a secret natural urge to serve us than for the sake of compulsion. We saw above what this natural instinct of service was like.

The Orientals, of course, carried it further in such exaltations. In a Persian poem it says:

»Ashen-colored hawk that steals its prey,
How darling's forehead steals hearts;
I hear his flight break through the air
Like your magnanimity, the fame and my poem;
Mercury is his eye when he looks
And his breast is adorned with gold in silk;
If it's blown, you think it's going
Lightning up, host of demons and sword
And when he sits on the slave's hand,
Do you think that bride flashes from her bridal bed. "

This is the state before the hawk was ennobled by the hunt, but then it is said: “No wonder when the sound of its bells, the bright one that rises to the two highest stars of the little army chariot - it always hunts in the distant sky according to the lucky stars and takes only the spirit of angels for nourishment without defects. "

The admiration and esteem of the hawks went so far that the rulers of the East often adopted their names. This is what the founder of the Turkish Empire of the Seljuk Empire called himself Toghrul, as an excellent species of the noble falcon was named and its brother Chakir d. i. Hawk.

In Scandinavian mythology it is mentioned that the hawk was sacrificed to the sun and that the night preceding the festival was called the Hawk night. The falcons were in high esteem. Freia, the goddess of love and the moon, takes falcons to the carriage to look for her faithless husband Oedr. From the lungs of the sacrificial falcon it was prophesied:

The sign may be deceptive in the sacrificial falcon,
And the rune may deceive on twig and beak:
A sincere heart, O Helge, with pure features,
Wrote odes full of runes that never deceive. "
(Frithiofs legend.)

In Germany one finds the falcon mentioned in many minnelongs and may find a place here from the 12th century by Kürenberg:

I drew a hawk
Probably more than a year.
You know how tame and moral
The beautiful bird was.
When I gave him his plumage
Richly wrapped in gold,
He lifted himself into the clouds
And flew to a distant land.

My Falk! I see you again
You flew high in clouds
You lead by your foot
The silk thong
And gold for your plumage;
But you avoid me.
God send every heart
His lovely sweetheart too!

My soul is moved
My eye full of tears,
That I am from my beauty
And good should part.
Slanderers who parted me
God make you suffer!
God reward who reconciles me
With love and bliss!

How popular the spectacle of the heron baize was is also proven by a festive banquet that Charles VII of France gave to the Duke of Burgundy in 1453 at Lille. A heron was raised at one end of the room, and immediately afterwards a falcon at the other. He rushed immediately and with the greatest violence on the heron and after a short fight brought him to the ground in the middle of the hall. The heron, dressed in this way, was presented to the duke.

Many princes included the image of the falcon in their seal and Duke Ernst August von Sachsen-Weimar gave it (1732) to the emblem of his well-known order of the white falcon.

The fact that there was a lot of playground for the noble Federspiel in Bavaria at an early stage is evident from the Ettal foundation deed mentioned above and from Emperor Maximilian's book of memoirs.

In a hall book from 1418, three falconers on horseback are listed under the huntings of Ludwig des Gebarteten von Bayern-Ingolstadt, each with two servants on foot and each with six falcons and "vogell," then a blue-footer (plabfusser) on horseback, a hawk ( Habicher) to Roß, a Vogler (Voglär) for hunting wild ducks and geese & c. The Reichsforst near Nuremberg is recommended by Emperor Wenzel († 1419) for the maintenance of the Federspiel and Duke Johann von Bayern († 1463) says that he "hett das wildpradt vast dear and lust for the valckenbaiß." Duke Albrecht IV. " forgiven by grace his dear special Hilpolden and Frantzen the Ridlern brothers Burgers zu Angsbnrg with ir own servants who need to hunt rabbits and foxes with in to reidtn in his district court in Möringen, and to piss with feathers too. «1480 . Oefele 2. 325.

In 1539, Duke Ludwig in Bavaria kept a house falconer and six falconers. Their salary totaled 1202 florins. 36 kr. today's money.

In 1543, Duke Wilhelm IV.from Bavaria gave Landgrave Philip of Hesse a "Gerfalkh," also several red falcons and in the ducal hunting regulations of 1551 under Albrecht V the appointment of the house falconer Leonhard Jäger is mentioned. He received "salary 18 fl., For the table 25 fl., A klaid, do 43 fl. (153 fl. 47 kr. Current money.)"

The Gjaidsordnung of 1616 under Elector Max I forbids shooting and catching herons except where they cause great damage to the fishing waters "because we have reserved the princely persons who come to our and other strangers."

As early as 1612, the elector owned the heron baize in Westerholz near Landsberg and owned the nearby Schloss Halteberg. Lichtenberg, also nearby, had already been acquired by the earlier dukes.

Heron trees were also kept at Wartenberg (Landgericht Erding) and at Leonsperg near Straubing. Max Emanuel often went to the Leonsperg Castle, about which Wenning (in his four rent offices) says: "And it is particularly good to estimate that you can piss and catch the rangers from the castle to the windows." also ladies in the entourage of the Elector as a picture in Lustheim near Schleissheim shows.

In 1681 a mandate was issued in which the elector should reserve the red and black kites, especially on the "Raiger stands," for their pleasure and thus neither be shot nor caught, and falcons that have flown away should not be damaged but caught and are brought in "mass everyone, if harm is caused by it, amusement is to happen." The kite (and) is one of the most beautiful birds of prey with a fork-shaped split thrust. It occurs quite frequently as a migratory bird in Bavaria, and sometimes nestles there too. From 1698 a French falconer by the name of Jean Beno is mentioned in the files of the Zwirchgewölbs, who in summer and autumn 38 falconsIt is called "bad falcons," so probably sack falcons, which also come under the name of bad and slaughter falcons. caught, also that the riding falconers Melchior Weigl, Franz Dillis and Jan Steinmans brought three lost falcons back home in nine days.

Around this time Maximilian Egger, electoral Ueberreiter zu Landsberg 291 and Kilian Streidl, Ueberreiter zu Wartenberg delivered 67 Heron Krandln (Kraanln, probably from Krone), which were officially kept until the arrival of Elector Max Emanuel. These claws are very narrow feathers, five to six inches long, of black color, the number of which in full-grown herons are five to six on the back of the head; They have similar feathers of white color on the chest. The most valued and rarest were the white ones with black tips. They were made into fans and the like and wore them, as they do now, as hat ornaments. In Russia, Turkey and Persia these feathers are also very valued and are even higher than those of the white heron. In 1705 and 1706, 775 Krandeln were delivered from Landsberg and 119 from Wartemberg and sent to Emperor Joseph I.

It is not probable that the hunters always came to these Krandln by shooting the herons, which were otherwise cherished so much, but I have not been able to find any details about them and just want to quote what a hunter told me about his father. He said that in the couple season (April and May), when the Krandln are at their most beautiful, the hunters put fork-shaped spikes under the eyrie trees, as the herons love to build the eyrie. Nooses were attached to these and caught the herons; the hunters on watch then hurried over, plucked their cranks and released them again.

The heron baize in Bavaria began, towards the time observed elsewhere, from November to May, often in May, and Elector Carl Albrecht and the Elector held the same thing in Lichtenberg from May 10th to June 22nd in 1734, as well as in 1735 and 1736 from 4th to 4th on June 16, where Duke Theodor, Bishop of Freising and Regensburg, took part. In the latter year a heron baiz was also held at Nymphenburg. Likewise, the Elector Baizte in 1738 to Lichtenberg, where the Elector Prince Max Joseph III. came with a retinue of 18 people. For the "Dutch falconry" the sum of 8488 florins was approved annually in 1726, for the German falconry or crows party the sum of 2018 florins.

Every year a heron that was brought alive was set free again after a silver ring was attached to the stand, on which the name of the ruling lord was engraved. Such a heron with the name of the elector's grandfather, Ferdinand Maria, was caught on the ring under Carl Albrecht, so that the age of this bird could be estimated to be more than 60 years. So also the King Friedrich III. in Prussia in 1710 a heron who wore a coat of arms ring on the stand, which was put on him by the elector Wilhelm. The heron may have been 50–60 years old or more.

At a heron baize at Moritzburg, which Churfürst Fr. August III. held by Saxony and the King of Poland, a heron was caught in 1751, which was baited by the Elector 10 years ago and 7 years ago by the Grand Sultan, the third ring was put on him and he was released again.

The Bavarian head falcon master's office was filled in the following way in 1738:

Colonel Falcon Master Christ. Adam Thadd. Baron von Freyberg;

Vice-Colonel Falcon Master Friedrich Anton Reichs-Erb-Truchseß Count von Waldburg;

August Anton Graf v. Leoni;

Falkenmeister official counter-writer Wolfgang Paur (Gjaid writer);

Raiger and Milan master Jakob Venneuln;

9 servants, 5 boys, 7 greyhound and Wachtelhund boys.

The clothing of the Baize was light blue with silver trims, as with the par force hunt.

In Hesse under Landgrave Friedrich II around 1765 the uniform for the baize was as follows: scarlet-clothed skirts with lapels and collars of light blue velvet and trimmed with silver braids, to which the most notable participants added the white hairstyle with the black silk hair bag almost a foot long and wide . The ladies elected to the court also wore these red clothes and, like the gentlemen, hats with heron bushes (Landau).

The margraves of Ansbach and Bayreuth drove the Baize especially around Gunzenhausen and Triesdorf.

How much time and labor was spent on these hunts is evident from the list of game harvested by Margrave C. Wilhelm Friedrich in 25 years (1730–1755). The following are listed:

398Wild ducks,
5059Hares & c.,

a total of 34,429 pieces, or an average of 1377 pieces per year.

Among these margraves were the so-called Falkenthaler, also falcon ducats, which were given as a reward to the falconers. The coin showed a falcon with the inscription: and Das Falkenmeisteramt recorded in 1757:

1Falcon page,
1Falcon secretary,
3Master servants,
2Heron keeper,
1Heron Master,
1Kite champion,
16Hawk boys.

Other falconry records, while not giving as abundant prey as the one above, show that much has been caught.

In 1729, Emperor Karl VI., Who usually kept the heron baize around Laxenburg near Vienna, painted:

19wild ducks,
2Cane chickens,
7Almond crows,
1Corn Crake,
1Day (?)


Landgrave Georg II of Hesse baizte in 4 years, from 1628–1631: 269 herons and 172 crows and other birds, August III. of Saxony as Crown Prince baizte with his wife at Kalkreuth (between Radeburg and Grossenhain) in June 1731: 88 herons and 90 crows.

The last Margrave of Ansbach and Baireuth, Karl Alexander, still hunted falcons at the end of the last century.

Under Max Joseph III. The falconry hunt came more and more into disrepair, because from 1763–1772 the falconry expenditures are only priced at 1169 florins. The elector was still baiting at Lichtenberg and the ladies went on the hunt in small wagons (so-called souffle wagons).

Reports and decrees under Karl Theodor from 1790 show that all attention was still paid to heron breeding in Lichtenberg, but baizen ceased around this time, as in Germany in general. Later, in June, when the young herons were just flinging, hunts were and are still being held in such a way that the hunters spread themselves out on the eyrie trees, one of which often numbered 5–7 or more nests, and the herons partly with the ball , sometimes shoot with shot. An old heron is seldom hunted, because as soon as they notice the hunt, they rise so high that they cannot be reached with a bullet, and circling continuously over the forest, while the young, even when they are startled, soon close again return to their clumps. This hunt is held annually by the reigning king or a prince in the Westerholz and is always shot against a hundred herons. The meat is bad to eat. In England, at the time of Queen Maria I († 1558), herons came to the court table. Feyerabendt (1582) also recommends artificial "Reygerhalter" (facilities for breeding herons) so that if the gentleman wanted to "prepare a splendidly handsome Pancket, he would have the Reyger for the best and in advance."

The reason why falcon hunting was buried in Germany at the end of the last century is in part attributed to the preferred use of the gun, but it seems to have more to do with the cost and the all-conquering demon of the fashion that demands change, with the increasing culture of the soil and arguably also with the war weather that broke in from France at that time.

In neighboring Holland, however, this hunt has never completely ceased and, as in England, is still practiced today.

In England, heron baize took place at Brighton in 1835 and 1836, and at Ditlington Hall in Norfolk in 1839. Flemish falconers were called for this and the peregrine falcon was used. In Holland there are excellent heron stands near the royal castle Loo in Geldern, and the flat, bushy terrain all around is ideal for hunting. The hunts are described in detail in the splendid work by Schlegel and Verster van Wulverhorst (), published in 1847, and I will share some of them briefly. The hunting season begins in June and lasts until the end of July. The falconry consists of 2 companies each of 4 men with 6 horses and 20 falcons. The maintenance costs are 11–12,000 francs. The baize mostly takes place in the afternoon from 4 o'clock until evening, at which time the herons return from their fisheries, to which they go out in the morning and which stretch four to five miles to the Zuider Sea and the banks of the Yssel and the Rhine. The hunting party, in which women also take part, awaits the arrival of the herons at certain places, as it were on the bills of exchange, where they have their mark. A falconer placed as an outpost on a hill gives the sign of an approaching heron by getting off his horse and turning his head in the direction where he sees him. At this sign the hunters shout and everything is in a joyous excitement. The heron is allowed to pass by, and then two falcons are released, which now begin their hunt. After various struggles, the three birds come down to the ground with each other, and the first of the hunters to reach them has the right to strip the herons of the herons, which are put on the hat as an honor. You can pick 6–8 herons a day. Kites are also pickled, but these are far rarer and are not used for the common falcons, but Icelandic or saker falcons. One tries to lure the kite circling in the air with a tame eared owl that one lets fly. So that the bird's attention is drawn to it all the sooner, a fox rod is tied to its fangs. The kite hates the owl and now two falcons are thrown, whereupon the kite rises in spirals until the falcons weaken and bring him down with their blows.

In the Orient, especially in Persia, falcon hunting is still in full bloom.

If you consider that the hawk-hunt was in full swing in the European countries for over a thousand years, that men and women, secular and clergymen paid homage to it, and that it developed a luster that was perhaps surpassed by deer hunting in ancient times, then you will Find confirmation of what I said at the beginning of the article, and the otherwise little noticed bird of prey screeching through the air, as well as the silent, boring heron acquire a significance, even if only now more historical, which they certainly do not have in their creation let dream. The heron served only to give the hawk the opportunity to show his courage and skill, and yet a historical event was connected with him, which the hawk has nothing similar to show. A poem from the time of Edward III. from England around 1338, has kept it. The story says that Robert von Artois, banished from France by his brother-in-law Philip, fled to Edward's house in England and tried in every way to induce him to go to war with France and to take Philip's crown away. Robert wanted to avenge his banishment. Eduard hesitated, however, and upset about this, Robert had a pickled heron roast and carried it between two silver bowls, accompanied by music, with pomp to the company of the assembled court. With a scornful speech he offered the bird to Eduard as the price of his cowardly indifference to a crown due to him, for the heron was considered cowardly and was told by him that he feared his own shadow. Although this suggestion was rather crude, it had the effect that Eduard swore to start the war, and now Robert made gentlemen and ladies on the heron vow to support the work, and the mightiest knights swore their arm and the queen herself, who was pregnant, swore on the heron that she would only give birth on the other side of the sea or kill herself and her child with a stab of a dagger. The campaign began, the queen crossed the canal and gave birth to a boy in Antwerp, who was baptized Lion d'Anvers.

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