What drives people's motivation
Overview. What is it that drives us? Basics of motivation and health. What is motivation? Focus of motivational psychology
1 What drives us? Fundamentals of motivation and health Prof. Dr. Veronika Brandstätter-Morawietz Chair for the University of Zurich Lecture at the 3rd cantonal WHM conference Overview Introduction: What is motivation? The three basic motives: Achievement, power, connection Motivation and health Constellation of unconscious and conscious motives Person-job constellation Conclusion November 28, 213, KUK Aarau 1 2 What is motivation? Focus of motivational psychology concept Collective term for a large number of sub-processes that are related to goal-oriented behavior.Determination, drive, willingness to perform, perseverance, purposefulness, ambition to explain oneself with the direction, perseverance and intensity of behavior. The motivational psychological approach is characterized by the fact that the desired target states and what makes them attractive are the explanatory variables (Rheinberg & Vollmeyer, 212, p. 13) Sarah Montibeller 4
2 Characteristics of goal-oriented action Current research on motivation Direction of goal of action Intensity Concentration and effort in action Approach vs. avoidance Action planning Endurance Overcoming difficulties, resistance to distractions, resumption of interrupted actions Motives Sarah Montibeller Emotion regulation Requirements for survival What are the motives? Finding food and sexual partners Exploration and manipulation of the environment Assertion against competitors Proximity and familiarity with conspecifics Successful pursuit of these goals essential for survival. Psychology: deriving basic motives. Achievement motive, power motive, connection motive 7 8
3 The three basic motives (The Big Three) Achievement motive The need to master challenges, to achieve a high standard of performance. Power motive The need to influence others, to impress others drives the joy of one's own ability. set high standards of performance for themselves and others. enjoy perfection, displeasure in stopgap solutions. need personal responsibility when mastering set goals. want feedback on their level of performance. Connection motive Need for positive relationships with other people (McClelland, 1985) 9 develop little engagement in routine activities with oneself. (Krug & Kuhl, 26) 1 strive to take responsibility and to get others excited about their ideas. attach great importance to good interpersonal relationships. are ready to stand up for their fellow human beings. like to be the focus. strive for higher positions and offices. are more often in competition with others. have a preference for prestigious objects. seek freedom and independence. seek regular, intimate contact with other people. want to be valued as a person and as a friend. are sensitive to the needs and feelings of others. are experienced as warm-hearted. tend to be more willing to cooperate and less willing to conflict. (Krug & Kuhl, 26) 11 (Krug & Kuhl, 26) 12
4 Motives in Understanding Psychology Are needs for specific experiences. Are stimulated by certain characteristics of a situation (incentives). Carolina Müller-Möhl Josef Ackermann You drive us and determine orientation, intensity and perseverance in our actions. Are differently pronounced in different people. There are two systems of motifs on two levels. DIE ZEIT, No. 22, Two motive systems: unconscious and conscious motives Unconscious and conscious motives / unconscious motives Where do I feel good? Where do I experience certain feelings? Conscious Motives Who am I? What do you expect from me? 15th
5 unconscious and conscious motives / 2 achievement power connection independence unconscious and conscious motives unconscious motives striving for certain feelings pride strength warmth conscious motives consistency with self-image unconscious motives (indirect measurement) conscious motives (direct measurement) (McClelland, Koestner & Weinberger, 1989) 18 Constellations of unconscious and conscious motives Conscious motive weak Unconscious motive weak Congruence Unconscious motive strong Incongruence Example of incongruence between implicit and explicit motive I am a performance-oriented person! Conscious motive strong incongruence congruence challenges do not irritate me! A person's conscious motive (self-image) does not match their unconscious motive. 19 2
6 Motivation and health within the person between person and work situation P (person) S (situation) 21 What is health? State of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not just the absence of illness or infirmity. " (Constitution of the World Health Organization) (3.1.13) «State of the objective and subjective well-being of a person, which is given when this person is in the physical, psychological and social areas of their development in harmony with their own possibilities and goals and those given in each case external living conditions. " (Hurrelmann, 23, p. 8) 22 Motivation and health within the person between person and work situation P (person) S (situation) Motive incongruence and well-being Consequences of motive incongruence on well-being and health whatever the reason for discordance between implicit and explicit motives, it can certainly lead to trouble Reduced life satisfaction (Hofer & Chasiotis, 23) (McClelland et al., 1989, p.7) Less positive feelings when the goal progresses (Brunstein et al., 1998) Exhaustion of willpower (Kehr, 24 ) Psychosomatic complaints (Baumann et al., 25) Unhealthy eating behavior (Job, Oertig, Brandstätter & Allemand, 21) 23 24
7 Motive incongruence as a stressor Life satisfaction as a function of implicit achievement motive and achievement goals Accumulation of conflict, frustration of basic emotional needs, overexertion of willpower Chronic motive incongruence = chronic stress Hofer & Chasiotis (23) 25 LM low LM high 26 Positive state of affairs depending on Implicit power motive and power goals Emotional well-being as a function of goal progress and achievement motive Hofer et al. (21) Emotional well-being LM n LM h Performance goals Much progress Little progress 27 According to Brunstein et al., 1998, Study 1, JPSP 28
8 Physical complaints depending on motive incongruence Consumed unhealthy snacks depending on implicit achievement motive and achievement goal headache gastrointestinal complaints back pain influenza infections physical complaints low high implicit achievement motive explicit achievement motivation high low Number of snacks Ach Com low Ach Com high low high Implicit achievement motives According to Baumann et al. (25, Study 2) 29 Job, Oertig, Brandstätter & Allemand (21, Study 1). 3 Unhealthy eating behavior in everyday life depending on the motive constellation of motivation and health. 5 Unhealthy Eating Behavior (z) Explicit Communion Explicit Agency within the person between person and work situation P (person) S (situation) person-job constellation and -.3 Communion Agency Implicit Job, Oertig, Brandstätter & Allemand (21, Study 2) 31 32
9 Motivational person-job constellation Reaction to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors Exhaustion, hostile attitude towards work, subjective loss of implicit motives (connection, power) X Activity characteristics (connection, power-related) Emotional well-being Physical well-being (Maslach, 23, p . 189) 33 the greater the incongruence between the person and the job, the greater the probability (Maslach & Leiter, 28, p. 51) 34 connection: motive-activity constellation and 2.5 connection: motive-activity constellation and emotional well-being * Follow-up-themed activities little too much emotional well-being 3 2 * Follow-up-themed work little much low high Implicit follow-up motive 1 low high Implicit follow-up motive Brandstätter & Job (212) 35 Brandstätter & Job (212) 36
10 Power: Motive-activity constellation and power: Motive-activity constellation and physical complaints * low high Implicit power motive Power-related activities little much Physical complaints low high Implicit power motive * Power-related activities little much Brandstätter & Job (212) 37 Brandstätter & Job ( 212) 38 The PS-Scheme P (Person) Motives x Ability x Willing Behavior Conclusion The Big Three Needs for performance, influence and social contact drive people. P x S scheme Motives must be stimulated by incentives in the situation. P x S V S (situation) incentives motivational component heart and head Chronic incongruence between unconscious and conscious motives is an intra-psychological stressor. 39
11 Practical implications Raising awareness of unconscious motives Make yourself aware of your own goals and self-image When making decisions, combine cool analysis with feelings using inner images (Job & Brandstätter, 29; Kehr, 29; Storch & Krause, 27) Designing work activities based on individual motives be taken into account in career counseling? Thank you for your attention! Literature / 1 recommended for a wider audience Baumann, N. Kaschel, R. & Kuhl, J. (25). Striving for unwanted goals: Stress-dependent discrepancies between explicit and implicit achievement motives reduce subjective well-being and increase psychosomatic symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, Brandstätter, V., Schüler, J., Puca, R. & Lozo, L. (213). General Psychology for Bachelor's: Motivation and Emotion. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Brandstätter, V. & Job, V. (212). Motive satisfaction and work-related well-being: Person-Job Fit and. Lecture at the 48th Congress of the German Society for Psychology, September 212, Bielefeld. Brunstein, J. C., Schultheiss, O. C. & Grässmann, R. (1998). Personal goals and emotional well-being: The moderating role of motive dispositions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, Hofer, J., Busch, H., Bond, H. B., Li, M. & Law, R. (21). Effects of motive-goal congruence on well-being in the power domain: Considering goals and values in a German and two Chinese samples. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, Hofer, J. & Chasiotis, A. (23). Congruence of life goals and implicit motives as predictors of life satisfaction: Cross-cultural implications of a study of Zambian male adolescents. Motivation and Emotion, 27, Hurrelmann, K. (23). Sociology of health. Weinheim: Juventa. 43 Literature / 2 Job, V., & Brandstätter, V. (29). To get a taste of your goals: Creating motive-goal congruence by affect-focus goal-fantasy. Journal of Personality, 77, Job, V., Oertig, D., Brandstätter, V. & Allemand, M. (21). Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior. Journal of Personality, 78, Kehr, H. M. (24). Implicit / explicit motive discrepancies and volitional depletion among managers. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, Kehr, H. M. (29). Authentic self-management. Weinheim: Beltz Verlag. Krug, J. S. & Kuhl, U. (26). Power, achievement, friendship. Motives as success factors in business, politics and top-class sport. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Maslach, C. (23). Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, Maslach, C. & Leiter, M. P. (28). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, McClelland, D.C. (1985). Human motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. McClelland, D.C., Koestner, R., & Weinberger, J. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96, Storch, M. & Krause, F. (27). Resource-oriented self-management. Bern: Huber. 44
12 Contact Prof. Dr. Veronika Brandstätter-Morawietz University of Zurich Psychological Institute Binzmühlestrasse 14/6 CH-85 Zurich Tel, Fax (Secretariat Ms. Prisca Greiner) 45
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