How big was field hockey in India
Origins 5,000 years ago - rules since the mid-19th century
The linguistic name for the sport of hockey comes either from the English “hook” (curved) or from the Old French “hoquet” (shepherd's stick; curved stick).
Already around the year 3000 before Christ, various kinds of stickball games took place in China, Persia and India, which were played with great physical effort and mostly very hard. In the Middle Ages it was hurling, bandy and shinty, primarily on the British Isles, but also on all continents of the world, that allowed the game of driftball with a "crook" to be further developed. These were very combat-oriented games in which the rackets were used as symbols and the gold decorations on the racket said something about the player's origin. By reducing the number of players per team from over 100 to 15 and introducing a set of rules, hurling has become somewhat more moderate and can be seen as a direct forerunner of hockey.
1832 Hockey was recommended as a "good sport" at Eton College in England and introduced as a compulsory subject for girls - as a counterpart to rugby for boys. The new discipline was cultivated at the various English universities, but played according to different rules, which made competitions between the colleges extremely difficult, since negotiations about the rules had to be conducted, which often enough failed.
It became the first hockey club in the world 1840 Founded by former students of a school in London-Blackheath under the name "Blackheath Football and Hockey Club". 1852 followed in Harrow the establishment of the first written set of rules for the game of hockey in order to enable a game operation. The “Rules of Harrow” contained eleven paragraphs that gave information about the condition of the field, playing clothes, number of players (30 per team), club length, high stick, prohibition of kicking, etc. The South Surrey Hockey Club introduced the shooting circle in 1857.
The development was now progressing faster and faster, 1875 the "Hockey Union" was founded in London. This made England the first country with a national association and can be considered the motherland of the modern game of hockey. In the same year a new rule was introduced: Avoiding physical contact between the players - this made a sharp distinction between football and rugby. It created the basis for the development of a fair, disembodied and elegant game. A few years later the ban on playing with feet, hands and body followed, as well as the specification of the dimensions of the playing field and goal.
1886 the "Hockey Association" was founded in England. This association brought its own rules, for example eleven players per team, goal nets, offside, stick fault, round side, bully etc .. A few years later the "Hockey Union" accepted the 11-man teams of the "Hockey Association" and joined them (1895). This increased the game operations, the HA was responsible for England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.
After the Hockey Association refused to accept women, the All England Women's Hockey Association was formed (1895). In this association, all four British women's associations were united, which also began with their own game operation.
Germany's 1st international game: 1908 against Scotland at the 4th Olympic Games in London
1908 Hockey celebrated its Olympic premiere in London - but only for men. When in 1924 the organizers of the Olympic Games in Paris refused to include hockey in their program because this sport did not have an international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon, based in Paris, was founded in the same year. Seven European associations were among the founding members of the FIHG. The G for “sur gazon” (on lawn) was only deleted from the name in 1965. Since then, the World Hockey Federation has been known as the FIH. The women soon (1927) also founded their own world association, the International Federation of Woman's Hockey Associations. The IFWHA only gave up its independence in 1983 and was incorporated into the FIH, as the International Olympic Committee had also exerted pressure to lead a single world association in hockey. After all, the IFWHA, in cooperation with the FIH, had managed to make women's hockey Olympic (1980). On the male side, hockey was an integral part of the program of the Summer Olympics from 1928 onwards.
With the games of Amsterdam 1928 the triumphal march of India began. The Asians, who copied the art of the hockey game from their British colonial rulers and developed it further in a very amazing way, became Olympic champions six times in a row and a total of eight times by 1980. After the political division of the Indian subcontinent, India's neighbor Pakistan took over the leading role in global hockey in the 1960s. Pakistan became three times Olympic champion and with four titles also record holder at world championships (from 1971).
It was reserved for the German men's national team to interrupt the 40-year Olympic reign of India and Pakistan with the 1-0 final victory over world champions Pakistan and winning the gold medal for the first time in Munich in 1972. In 1992, Germany was able to repeat its Olympic victory.
1976 An Olympic hockey tournament was held on artificial turf for the first time in Montreal. The turning away from natural grass heralded a new age in hockey, in which the tactically and athletically strongest nations, above all Australia and the top European representatives Netherlands and Germany, set the tone. Argentina plays an important role in the women's field (women's world champion 2002).
In addition to the men, other teams from the German Hockey Federation also celebrated significant successes. Women, juniors and juniors (both U21s) became European and world champions, and the women also became Olympic champions in 2004. Germany is also the industry leader in indoor hockey, which from the 1950s onwards became more and more popular in Europe as a bridge for field hockey, which was dormant in winter . Meanwhile there are also world and European championships in indoor hockey, but no Olympic perspective.
Hockey in Germany
Hockey had found its way to Germany through the English spread towards the end of the 19th century. 1887 English-born hockey players founded the first hockey associations in Hanover and Heidelberg. In 1896 the first competition on German soil took place between the English students of the Bad Godesberg pedagogy and the Bonn Royal High School. Two years later, the first official hockey club in Germany was founded: the “1. Hamburger Hockey Club ”, which became part of the Uhlenhorster Hockey Club in 1901. In addition to the international port city of Hamburg, hockey quickly became very popular, especially in Berlin. In 1899 the first women's competition on a club basis took place in the “Berlin Women's Hockey Club”. The men's business did not start until a year later. In 1902 the Berlin Hockey Association was founded as the first regional hockey association in Germany, and other regional associations soon followed. As part of an international hockey week in Bonn, the German Hockey Association was born on December 31, 1909.
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