Why can violence be broken down into components
(= F.) peace psychology], [SOZ], deals with psychol. Aspects of peace, conflict resolution (conflict, social) and war. Fundamental are a normative component - the ideal of peace with the increasing realization of human rights - and a procedural component: according to the Charter of the United Nations of 1945, conflicts are to be resolved (if possible) non-violently (pacifism). F. can be divided into four subject areas: education, research, practice and influencing political processes. Ps. Organizations that focus on F. are among others. Committee for the Psychological Study of Peace, Forum Peace Psychology, Peace Psychology, Division 48 the American Psychological Association (APA) and Psychologists for Social Responsibility (PsySR). F. can be analytical (Research on Peace) and practical (Research and Commitment to Peace) be oriented. In the term peace, neg. Peace (absence of war) and pos. Distinguished peace, especially (increasing) realization of human rights and social justice, satisfaction of basic human needs. Peace and war are complex phenomena at which different levels are relevant: from the individual to groups, social organizations and institutions, states to international systems. Ps. Are significant inter alia. basic beliefs such as authoritarianism, militarism, nationalism, feeling of one's own higher value vs. pacifism, empathy, respect, tolerance and solidarity. F. researches wars in order to clarify the often neglected psych., Social and economic costs of wars, to make people aware of the human suffering caused by wars, to analyze the preparation and conduct of wars and to show possibilities of non-violent conflict resolution in general or in specific conflicts (Peace Psychology and Military Violence; Culture of Peace). Conflicts are (at least one party) perceived incompatible expectations, interests, needs or tendencies to act. Relevant content can (survival) life, power (claims), (state) borders, economy (ownership, raw materials, sales markets, workers and their wages), cult. and religious values, but also dignity, (injured) honor and pride. F. is about conflicts between large groups, especially clans, ethnic groups, religious communities and states. A distinction must be made between (obj.) Content of conflict, Experience of conflict (Cognitions and emotions) and Conflict behavior. At a Conflict analysis different components have to be differentiated, including Subject / content, directly and indirectly involved parties, levels, current triggers and structural causes, goals of the conflicting parties, conflict strategies and forms of resolution, (probable, short and long-term, intended and unintended) consequences of desired conflict goals and practiced conflict strategies. At the Conflict behavior and the underlying strategy, it is important whether the actors take into account their own interests as well as those of the other or see them as legitimate. A distinction must be made between (superficial) positions and (underlying) interests. Actions are perspective and context dependent; therefore pos. intended actions are perceived as aggressive by the opponent and lead to an (“autonomous”) conflict escalation. The aim of the F. is not to avoid conflicts, but to regulate or resolve them non-violently and to transform conflicts that are already violent. For this purpose, various strategies are discussed in the F., from the involvement of the population to the GRIT model (peace psychology, strategies).
References and in-depth literature
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