Which academics study bee populations

Why, if the bees die out, the world will die. Will humanity survive when bees disappear from the earth? Why are there fewer winged nectar pickers?

That the disappearance of bees will lead to the disappearance of humans. Fortune teller Wanga predicted the bees' disappearance in 2004, but she was wrong. Who knows, maybe the fault does not lie in the fact of the disappearance, but only in the date of the onset of the disaster.

Disappearance facts

The data show that 2006 saw a sharp decline in the number of bees for the first time. The World Bee Foundation reports that bee colonies decrease from 20% (Europe) to 35% (USA) in winter. This is considered an abnormal phenomenon, since in the cold season the bee loss should not be more than 10%.

Esoteric sources say that bees from another planet appeared on earth to help people.

Up to 33% of the world's food supply requires insect pollination. Up to 90% of this work is done by bees. Already today the need for pollination of agricultural crops has increased by 25%, and the number of bees is not increasing, on the contrary, it is decreasing (the number of these insects has halved, that is, by 50%, which means that the percentage of pollination is only 25%).

When there are no bees

When the bee population is reduced to a critical level or disappears completely, the pollination process of many plants is disrupted. But there are other pollinating insects - flies and.

With the growth of the world population, food consumption has increased. A third of all plants that bees pollinate are food for humans and animals.

With the disappearance of the bees, all of the bees-pollinated plants, namely fruits, vegetables and grains, disappear. In this regard, there will be food shortages.

Genetically modified foods can provide relief, but they also carry hundreds of diseases to humanity. When used, people develop a decrease in immunity, pathological changes in certain organs and a sharp increase in the number of oncological diseases.

Bees pollinate cotton, and when they're gone, humanity only needs to dress in polyester or animal skins, but not for long.

If the food supply for animals disappears with the disappearance of the bees, there is simply nothing for the cattle to feed on. Milk, sour cream, cheese and meat disappear at the same time. As the world of food shrinks, the number of people will gradually decrease.

But many scientists today are fighting this problem by studying the causes of the disappearance of bees.

Albert Einstein, distinguished by his rare shrewdness, predicted as early as the early 1940s that humans would soon be gone when bees disappeared from the earth. They say that Vanga, who knew nothing about it, prophesied after decades: 2004 will be a massive bee pest on the world, followed by many plants, animals and finally the disappearance of humans. The clairvoyant was wrong for only two years. Reports indicate that the planet began to decline sharply in the number of bees since 2006, and this, some experts assure, will inevitably lead to disastrous consequences.

The World Bee Foundation (WSBF) statistics are as follows. In the US, bee colonies decrease by 30 to 35 percent each winter in winter, and by around 20 in Europe, although the cold season losses should normally not exceed 10 percent. In Russia, the number of bee colonies has decreased by a quarter in the last ten years. Of course, life without honey is not sweet. The problem is not just the threat of shortages. "Most consumers are confident that the main task of a bee is to produce honey," says Nikolai Krivtsov, director of the Beekeeping Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, a correspondent member of the Russian Agricultural Academy. - Not at all. Another thing is much more important: bees pollinate about 150 types of agricultural crops, which in Russia, for example, occupy more than nine million hectares. Pollination not only increases the productivity of plants but also improves the quality of their seeds and fruits. "According to the most conservative estimates, the value of the harvest, obtained annually thanks to bees, is 10 billion rubles.

The role of insects in pollinating plants is colossal - up to a third of human food resources depend on them. Bees do 80-90 percent of this work. "Over the past half century, the number of so-called bee-dependent plants cultivated by mankind has quadrupled, while the number of bees has halved," said Arnold Butov, chairman of the Russian National Beekeeping Union. "At the same time, the number of people per hectare of land has fallen by 90 percent." But without bees it is impossible to grow citrus fruits, apples, onions, zucchini, beans, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, tomatoes, coffee, cocoa, nuts, melons, berries. We are clearly uncomfortable without a bee. "From plant foods we get the vast majority of minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, which provide us with almost half of the energy that the body supplies with food," recalls the director of the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Viktor Tutelyan. - Of course, the same vitamins and minerals can be artificially synthesized, but when wildlife begins to die, the chemically derived nutrients may no longer be useful to us.

Why are bees disappearing? Experts cite several reasons, and all of them are linked to the advancement of civilization in relation to wildlife. The first reason is the overuse of pesticides. European countries trying to save bees are banning certain types of pesticides - Germany, France and Italy have already resorted to such measures, and the UK is considering it too. However, agricultural companies cannot completely abandon pesticides. In this context, the WSBF has proposed that the use of these substances be banned during the day while bees are in the fields.


The second reason is new diseases. American beekeepers lose entire colonies of these insects due to an unknown disease called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The disease, which kills millions of bee colonies, has already been reported in 24 states. And experts cannot determine the causes of the disease. There was evidence that it could be caused by the effects of the Bt toxin. It is produced by genetically modified plants with a built-in gene for the soil bacterium Bt, which kills pests. "The link between genetically modified crops and the spread of CCD is also confirmed by the fact that most of the dead bees were recorded in the regions where Bt crops were grown," says Irina Ermakova, an international expert on environmental and health issues Food Safety, Doctor of Life Sciences.

Other scientists believe that electromagnetic radiation is responsible for all, or rather one of its sources - cellular ... For the first time, researchers from the University of Punjab (India) drew attention to the relationship between cell phones and bees, which for three months consist of two bee colonies Watching beehives. The first beehive was exposed to electromagnetic radiation from two cell phones that were turned on for 15 minutes each day, and the second beehive was not irradiated. It turned out that the queen bee laid twice as few eggs in the first beehive. The amount of honey has also decreased. Also, after collecting pollen, the worker bees never returned home from the first beehive. There is a bitter irony in this situation: after all, in due course, mobile communications They called it a honeycomb by analogy with wax buildings - honeycombs that bees create for food storage and family settlement. Now the cell phone every farmer and beekeeper is armed, the bees seem to have a hard time.


Another possible cause of death of beneficial insects - climate changes on the planet that can affect the pollination of plants and the wetting of fields. James Thompson, a professor at the University of Toronto's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, began studying wild plants in the Colorado Rockies 17 years ago. His observations were recorded and compared three times a year. His conclusion: Climate change can cause flowers to bloom too early, long before the bees wake up from hibernation, and therefore insects cannot get early nectar and do not pollinate flowers. According to Thompson, this refers to a large number of flowering plants that are not only wild but also cultivated, such as tomatoes and strawberries. Scientists at the International Institute for Water Management in Stockholm have also identified the effects of uneven rainfall associated with global climate change on food security. As an example of the unpredictability of rainfall, they recall last summer's drought in Russia and the floods in Pakistan.

However, scientists cannot yet reach consensus on the cause of death of bees. That is shocking. After all, there can be many reasons. But whoever dominated of them, most likely people are to blame. Is it really that tragic?

Experts from the Department of Entomology of the Faculty of Biology at Lomonosov State University in Moscow do not believe in this natural horror story. First, they believe that the extent of the extinction is grossly exaggerated. A periodic decline in the population of certain species is a normal phenomenon in nature. And this is usually due to a decrease in genetic diversity. Especially with bees due to their closely related crossbreeding in a particular region. After the "degenerate" die, those who do not have harmful mutations in the genome quickly restore population size. Therefore, in their opinion, the ultimate death of honeybees as a species is unlikely to be threatened. Second, even if this happens, nothing irreparable will happen. Crops likely just need to change their pollinators. For example, buckwheat can be pollinated by flies, wasps, beetles ... In addition, the bee has not always been the main pollinator of plants, entomologists recall. For many millions of years it lived only in central Africa and only came to northern regions 20,000 years ago. Man only tamed them generally six thousand years ago. And before that, the flora existed perfectly without domestic bees.

Although I feel sorry for the bees and want honey.

Opinions

Vladimir Ivanov, Associate Professor at the Institute of Entomology, Faculty of Biology and Soil Science, St. Petersburg State University:

After all, bees are unlikely to disappear from the ground, as they are surprisingly efficient, resilient, and quite aggressively ousting competitors. But their role in the natural chain should not be exaggerated. For example, they weren't always the main pollinator of the plants. Before humans tamed them, other insects did an excellent job with this craft. And they don't just know how to make honey. For example, polybial wasps, which were once tamed by the South American Indians, are suitable for this role.

Bella Striganova, PhD in Life Sciences, Head of the Soil Zoology Laboratory at the Institute of Ecology and Evolution. A. N. Severtsov RAS:

The number of bees around the world is greatly decreasing, largely due to the constant reduction in the areas where insects can feed. The biological diversity of the planet is under attack - forests are cut down, water bodies are polluted, the composition of the atmosphere is depleted. If in other countries this alarming situation is more or less controlled (e.g. parks and forests are planted in Europe), then in our country a complete shame occurs. One example is the Moscow region, where farming villages are attacking the once luxurious forests full of mushrooms and berries.

Due to urbanization and technological advances, many living organisms, including bees, are threatened with extinction that absolutely need to build their own homes. The main reason they die is precisely that they actually become homeless. A man can live in such a condition, a bee cannot.

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The fortune teller Vanga once remarked of the destructive cataclysms ahead on the planet: "First the bees will disappear ..." But the words of the genius Einstein: "If bees disappear on earth, humanity will only be able to last four years.

There will be no bees, there will be no pollination, plants and animals will disappear, and people will disappear. "You can't argue with Einstein: After all, we get around a third of our food from plants that bear fruit due to pollination by insects. At the same time, honey bees pollinate up to 80% of the plants. A bee colony can“ serve up to three million flowers per day. " “. Bumblebees, butterflies, beetles in this sense and in the sense of the worker are not suitable! But a disaster has happened to the bees ...

Why are there fewer winged nectar collectors?

You will go quietly

Until recently, beekeeping in Latgale was considered one of the few profitable branches of agriculture ... Large areas of natural meadows and pastures created favorable conditions for bees. How are you today?

Andrei Mizis, Vice Chairman of the Council of the Latvian Beekeeping Society, sounds the alarm:

Mizis herself only has 20 out of 200 beehives.

Veterinary clinic doctor Yuri Gridasov gave his opinion:

Beekeepers should apply twice a year for the treatment of beehives with progressive varroa. This avoids problems. Unfortunately, in Latvia, due to the ban, which is in no way explained, cheaper but effective Russian drugs for the treatment of bees have disappeared. We only offer those who are registered in the country.

A pattern to be followed

I go to a honey shop in Daugavpils. It is run by Irena Antsane who has been working for 20 years. She actually leads an informal society of people who are not only enthusiastic about beekeeping but also about the use of natural products.

We receive high quality honey from all over Latvia. The honey yield fell two years ago. I speak about it with all responsibility because, according to the specifics of my work, I communicate with beekeepers from Zilupe, Kraslava, Dagda, Rezekne, etc. Buying local honey has become problematic. Today there are three varieties in the store: rapeseed, forest and flower. While in the past few years heather (the most useful) was for sale, made from sweet clover, from linden blossom, field, buckwheat ... And now we sit for a week or two without honey - there is nothing to sell!

Experienced beekeepers are surprised that, after hibernating, bees do not die of hunger, but of the unknown, - continues Irena Ancane. - Conscientious beekeepers lost 30 to 100 percent of the bee colonies. Today Latgale has the lowest honey yield. Natural honey is becoming more and more expensive and the demand for it is growing. One kilogram now costs 6-8 lats, while five years ago one kilogram of honey was sold for 3.5 lats.

You know there is a theory that the bee is a symbol of civilization. She has always embodied hard work and humility, as well as diligence, wisdom and vigilance. The bee has been with someone throughout its history and has brought all sorts of benefits. Bees have their own state, their fair laws ... It wouldn't be a sin to learn from them vis-à-vis our lawmakers - with some irony, Antsane concluded, and I went to the market's food pavilion.

Valery Ryzhkov from Salienskaya volost, the only honey seller for the entire bazaar that day, complained that three colonies of bees died in winter:

We don't know what to think! Everything goes into my head. Sugar has gotten gross too. Not the one that used to come from beets. You can't cook jam from it in winter - it will turn sour, not like feeding a bee. I'm selling the old honey now. I am afraid the honey harvest will be very small, although everything seems to be blooming in nature.

Approach artificial life quickly

Where is Latvia and where is America! If there were 5 million bee colonies in the United States in the mid-20th century, only half will be left. Bee colonies suffer from the so-called Colony Collapse Syndrome. For some years now, they have been leaving the beehives in whole families. And they just fly into nowhere. The bees were never found dead or alive. There are several hypotheses about the reasons for this phenomenon. For example the effects of cell towers. You and our villagers consider it a real disaster, provided that the bees' navigation system is affected in the electromagnetic field zone and they cannot find a way home.

Affected by the influence of pesticides, genetically modified plants. The soil bacteria gene is built into the genome of plants that were supposed to infect green space pests. However, genetics failed to take into account that a bee might be interested in a flower in addition to the pest.

Recently, American scientists discovered that bees initially contract the Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), which causes paralysis of the wings. As soon as an epidemic sets in in the beehive, the remaining bees leave their place of residence immediately. Mass death of bees is observed in many countries around the world. The total losses of beekeepers are estimated at enormous sums. By reducing the number of wild honey plants, bees fly very far in search of nectar, which increases the risk of the virus spreading.

Who on the planet can we save if we can't stand up to protect a small, hardworking creature who tirelessly cares for our health? It is well known how much is spent on weapons in each country and how much was spent on finding out why the bee - also a child of nature, by the way - did not return to its homeland or why it died.

Scientists warn that these insects will completely disappear from the earth by 2035 if the decline in the bee population continues at the same rate. The disappearance of bees threatens not only the loss of honey, but also the harvest of fruits, vegetables, berries, nuts and grains. The pollination of plants and thus their productivity depends on the activity of the bees. Though why do we need their pollination - we pollinate them artificially.

Artificial fruits, artificial bees, artificial senses, artificial we ...

Speaking of which

The honeycombs built by bees are of the strongest construction and are dimensioned with unparalleled precision. Bees perceive smells and differentiate them 1000 times more than humans, which allows them to smell flowers for more than a kilometer. Some types of bees can fly with a load many times greater than themselves.


  • Did you know that bees make honey from nectar from flowers?
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  • 3 days ago The wickedness of bees depends not only on the breed of bees, but also on the location of the apiary. From personal experience, they came to the conclusion that the beehives should be located so that the bees flew into the beehive from above. Probably for this reason, one of the requirements for placing an apiary on personal property is a fence of at least 2 meters. It will not protect the neighbors from bees, but rather calm the bees themselves. We follow these rules when choosing a nomad point. This year points of 5+ :) # Points # Nomads # Napaseke # Siberia # Starchevskie # Medsibir

  • 4 days ago Tried several layers today. And in some, young queens have already started to work. It is excellent. In our climatic zone, having fetal queens in early June is excellent (not to buy from the south, but to bring out of the region). Such layers can work on the main honey collection. We are preparing a framework for the reinforcement and complete expansion of the layers. At least 500 foundation frames are required. In the morning the UAZ crashed. Most likely the oil was squeezed out through a new filter, the roof felts were not tightened well, or something else ... Tomorrow we will go into town to get oil and another filter. It is good that the disorder manifested itself 2 km from the house. With a home tractor T-40, they quickly brought the UAZ to the yard. On a nomad

    5 days ago The willow is fading. The dandelion blooms, but the bees continue to ignore it, apparently it does not give "honey" in our area. Meadowsweet (spirea), mountain ash, sage and other types of "mint" bloom. The first raspberry blossoms are about to bloom. We noticed that the rape was frozen in a pore. It has been 15 days since the seedlings appeared, but they have not grown by a millimeter. # Apiary # Napaseke # honey plants # flowers # summer # rapeseed # Medsibir # Starchevsky

    1 week ago For two days, bees filled the full hives with pollen. We never have problems with pollen in Siberia. And beekeepers who feed bees with soy meal and other substitutes do so based on the principle: "Vanka feed and I will." And the fact that these Vanka bees stop somewhere in the steppe zone of the Krasnodar Territory, where there is a shortage of pollen in nature, for some reason does not matter to our Siberian beekeeper. Don't make unnecessary movements. This also applies to the bee breed. Why keep southern bees in Siberia? Feed them sugar on the eyeballs every fall. Shovel tons of snow in the spring to help flush them to the toilet faster. Buy queens annually and depend on them

    Albert Einstein, distinguished by his rare shrewdness, predicted as early as the early 1940s that humans would soon be gone when bees disappeared from the earth. They say that Vanga, who knew nothing about it, prophesied after decades: 2004 will be a massive bee pest on the world, followed by many plants, animals and finally the disappearance of humans. The clairvoyant was wrong for only two years. Reports indicate that the planet began to decline sharply in the number of bees since 2006, and this, some experts assure, will inevitably lead to disastrous consequences.

    The World Bee Foundation (WSBF) statistics are as follows. In the US, bee colonies decrease by 30 to 35 percent each winter in winter, and by around 20 in Europe, although the cold season losses should normally not exceed 10 percent. In Russia, the number of bee colonies has decreased by a quarter in the last ten years. Of course, life without honey is not sweet. The problem is not just the threat of shortages. "Most consumers are confident that the main task of a bee is to produce honey," says Nikolai Krivtsov, director of the Beekeeping Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, a correspondent member of the Russian Agricultural Academy. - Not at all. Another thing is much more important: bees pollinate about 150 types of agricultural crops, which in Russia, for example, occupy more than nine million hectares. Pollination not only increases the productivity of plants but also improves the quality of their seeds and fruits. "According to the most conservative estimates, the value of the harvest, obtained annually thanks to bees, is 10 billion rubles.

    The role of insects in pollinating plants is colossal - up to a third of human food resources depend on them. Bees do 80-90 percent of this work. "Over the past half century, the number of so-called bee-dependent plants cultivated by mankind has quadrupled, while the number of bees has halved," said Arnold Butov, chairman of the Russian National Beekeeping Union. "At the same time, the number of people per hectare of land has fallen by 90 percent." But without bees it is impossible to grow citrus fruits, apples, onions, zucchini, beans, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, tomatoes, coffee, cocoa, nuts, melons, berries. We are clearly uncomfortable without a bee."From plant foods we get the vast majority of minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, which provide us with almost half of the energy that the body supplies with food," recalls the director of the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Viktor Tutelyan. - Of course, the same vitamins and minerals can be artificially synthesized, but when wildlife begins to die, the chemically derived nutrients may no longer be useful to us.

    Why are bees disappearing? Experts cite several reasons, and all of them are linked to the advancement of civilization in relation to wildlife. The first reason is the overuse of pesticides. European countries trying to save bees are banning certain types of pesticides - Germany, France and Italy have already resorted to such measures, and the UK is considering it too. However, agricultural companies cannot completely abandon pesticides. In this context, the WSBF has proposed that the use of these substances be banned during the day while bees are in the fields.

    The second reason is new diseases. American beekeepers lose entire colonies of these insects due to an unknown disease called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The disease, which kills millions of bee colonies, has already been reported in 24 states. And experts cannot determine the causes of the disease. There was evidence that it could be caused by the effects of the Bt toxin. It is produced by genetically modified plants with a built-in gene for the soil bacterium Bt, which kills pests. "The link between genetically modified crops and the spread of CCD is also confirmed by the fact that most of the dead bees were recorded in the regions where Bt crops were grown," says Irina Ermakova, an international expert on environmental and health issues Food Safety, Doctor of Life Sciences.

    Other scientists believe that electromagnetic radiation is responsible for everything, or rather, one of its sources is cellular communication. For the first time, researchers from the University of Punjab (India) drew attention to the relationship between cell phones and bees who observed bee colonies from two hives for three months. The first beehive was exposed to electromagnetic radiation from two cell phones that were turned on for 15 minutes each day, and the second beehive was not irradiated. It turned out that the queen bee laid twice as few eggs in the first beehive. The amount of honey has also decreased. Also, after collecting pollen, the worker bees never returned home from the first beehive. There's a bitter irony in this situation: after all, cellular communications used to be called cellular, precisely by analogy with wax buildings - honeycombs that bees create for food storage and family settlement. Now that every farmer and beekeeper is armed with cell phones, it seems bees are having a hard time.

    Another possible reason for beneficial insects to die is due to changes in the climate on the planet, which can affect the pollination of plants and the wetting of fields. James Thompson, a professor at the University of Toronto's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, began studying wild plants in the Colorado Rockies 17 years ago. His observations were recorded and compared three times a year. His conclusion: Climate change can cause flowers to bloom too early, long before the bees come out of hibernation, and therefore insects cannot get early nectar and do not pollinate flowers. According to Thompson, this refers to a large number of flowering plants that are not only wild but also cultivated, such as tomatoes and strawberries. Scientists at the International Water Management Institute in Stockholm have also identified the effects of uneven rainfall associated with global climate change on food security. As an example of the unpredictability of rainfall, they recall last summer's drought in Russia and the floods in Pakistan.

    However, scientists cannot yet reach consensus on the cause of death of bees. That is shocking. After all, there can be many reasons. But whoever dominated of them, most likely people are to blame. Is it really that tragic?

    Experts from the Department of Entomology of the Faculty of Biology at Lomonosov State University in Moscow do not believe in this natural horror story. First, they believe that the extent of the extinction is grossly exaggerated. A periodic decline in the population of certain species is a normal phenomenon in nature. And this is usually due to a decrease in genetic diversity. Especially with bees due to their closely related crossbreeding in a particular region. After the "degenerate" die, those who do not have harmful mutations in the genome quickly restore population size. Therefore, in their opinion, the ultimate death of honeybees as a species is unlikely to be threatened. Second, even if this happens, nothing irreparable will happen. Crops likely just need to change their pollinators. For example, buckwheat can be pollinated by flies, wasps, beetles ... In addition, the bee has not always been the main pollinator of plants, entomologists recall. For many millions of years it lived only in central Africa and only came to northern regions 20,000 years ago. Man only tamed them generally six thousand years ago. And before that, the flora existed perfectly without domestic bees.

    Although I feel sorry for the bees and want honey.

    Natalia Leskova

    Opinions

    Vladimir Ivanov, Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Biology and Soil Science, St. Petersburg State University:

    After all, bees are unlikely to disappear from the ground, as they are surprisingly efficient, resilient, and quite aggressively ousting competitors. But their role in the natural chain should not be exaggerated. For example, they weren't always the main pollinator of the plants. Before humans tamed them, other insects did an excellent job with this craft. And they don't just know how to make honey. For example, polybial wasps, which were once tamed by the South American Indians, are suitable for this role.

    Bella Striganova, Doctor of Life Sciences, Head of the Soil Zoology Laboratory at the Institute of Ecology and Evolution. A. N. Severtsov RAS:

    The number of bees around the world is greatly decreasing, largely due to the constant reduction in the areas where insects can feed. The biological diversity of the planet is under attack - forests are cut down, water bodies are polluted, the composition of the atmosphere is depleted. If in other countries this alarming situation is more or less controlled (e.g. parks and forests are planted in Europe), then in our country a complete shame occurs. One example is the Moscow region, where farming villages are attacking the once luxurious forests full of mushrooms and berries.

    Due to urbanization and technological advances, many living organisms, including bees, are threatened with extinction that absolutely need to build their own homes. The main reason they die is precisely that they actually become homeless. A man can live in such a condition, a bee cannot.