Linen saree is difficult to handle

The preservation of fabric fibers and leather enables insights into the clothing of old societies. The clothing that was used in ancient times reflects the technologies that ruled these peoples. In many cultures, clothing indicated the social status of various members of society.

The evolution of clothing and fashion is an exclusively human trait and is a characteristic of most human societies. Clothing made from materials such as animal skins and vegetation was first used by early humans to protect their bodies from the elements. The use of clothing and textiles over the centuries reflects the different evolution of civilizations and technologies. Sources available for studying clothing and textiles include archaeological finds; Representation of textiles and their manufacture in art; and documents relating to the manufacture, purchase, use, and trading of fabrics, tools, and finished garments.

Ancient Egyptian clothing

Textile materials
Although the ancient Egyptians were aware of other materials, they most commonly used linen, a product made from the abundant flax plant. Given the belief that animal-based fabrics were impure, wool was rarely used and banned in temples and sanctuaries. Other animal products such as furs were reserved for priests and were ultimately only accepted by the highest class of ancient Egyptian citizens. Linen is light, strong and flexible, which makes it ideal for living in warm climates where abrasion and heat wear off clothing. Most ancient Egyptians used linen as their primary textile.

The material quality of the clothes differed between the classes, where those of the upper class used finer linen, which was represented in statues and paintings by their translucency. They also used more complex draperies, designs, and patterns that included dyed thread and feathers. These materials were expensive and the wearer showed a higher status by wearing them. On the other hand, cheaper and thicker linen was used in the lower class, where shorter garments were worn by the working class for better mobility in the fields.

Men in ancient Egypt often wore the loincloth (or shenti) common in all classes; although men of a higher class wore longer shenti, often paired with a draped cloak or tunic. It was considered acceptable for men and women alike to wear their chest in both the upper and lower classes. However, a complete lack of clothing has often been associated with youth or poverty; It was common for children of all walks of life to move out by the age of six and for the slaves to remain naked for most of their lives. Certain items of clothing that were common to both sexes were tunics and robes. Around 1425 to 1405 BC A light tunic or short-sleeved shirt was popular, as was a pleated skirt.

Clothing for adult women has remained unchanged for several millennia, apart from small details. Draped clothing with very large rolls gave the impression of carrying multiple objects. It was indeed a hawk, often made of very fine muslin. The dress was rather narrow and even constricting, made of white or unbleached fabric for the lower classes. Garments worn by the higher classes had sleeves that began below the chest and were held by suspenders that were attached to the shoulders. These suspenders sometimes covered the breasts, sometimes between them, and were painted and dyed for various reasons to mimic the plumage on the wings of Isis.

The female garment in ancient Egypt was a short skirt for the lower classes or a kalasiris, a longer skirt that goes from the ankles to just below the breasts. In the Middle Kingdom, kilts were fashionable for a long time. They were like skirts, reaching from the waist to the ankles, sometimes even to the armpits. The New Kingdom was the more luxurious time; People wore more clothes, sometimes in shifts. with an inner and an outer garment. This outer layer was made of particularly fine, see-through pleated linen and would appear almost transparent.

Royal family clothing was different and well documented; for example, the crowns of the pharaohs, as mentioned below, feather headdresses, and the khat or headscarf were all worn by the nobility.

Shoes were the same for both sexes; leather-braided sandals or, especially for the bureaucratic and priestly classes, papyrus.

Perfume and cosmetics
Embalming made it possible to develop cosmetic products and perfumery very early [clarification required]. Perfumes in Egypt were fragrance oils that were very expensive. In ancient times, people made great use of it. The Egyptians used makeup a lot more than anyone at the time. Cabbage, used as an eyeliner, was eventually obtained as a substitute for galena, or lead oxide, which had been used for centuries. Eye color was the most common form and was used to protect the eyes from the sun. The reason for wearing eye makeup is to protect the eyes from the sun's rays and to ward off infection. The dramatic makeup also mimicked the face drawing of the sun god Horus, who was often depicted as a falcon. Eye shadow was made from crushed malachite and ocher lipstick. Substances used in some of the cosmetics were toxic and had adverse health effects with prolonged use. Beauty products have generally been mixed with animal fats to make them more compact, easier to handle and to preserve. Nails and hands were also painted with henna. Only the lower class had tattoos. It was also popular at parties for men and women to wear a fragrant cone on your head. The cone was usually made of ox tallow and myrrh, and over time it melted and gave off a pleasant perfume. When the cone melted, it was replaced with a new one. The use of cosmetics differed slightly between social classes, where more makeup was worn by higher class people, as wealthier people could afford more makeup. Although there was no prominent difference between the upper and lower class cosmetic styles, noble women were known to use creams and powders to bleach their skin. This was because pale skin was a sign of nobility, as lighter skin was less exposed to the sun, while dark skin was associated with the lower class who tanned while working in the fields. This resulted in pale skin, which represented the non-working noble class as noble woman would not work in the sun.

Wigs and headdresses
Although the heads were shaved both as a sign of nobility and because of the hot climate, hairstyle was a big part of ancient Egyptian fashion through the use of wigs. Wigs were used by both sexes of the upper and lower classes; The quality of the wigs depended on the amount of disposable income available, which created a visual divide between classes. Good quality wigs are made from human hair and have been decorated with jewels and woven with gold. In the courtyard, the more elegant examples had small goblets filled with perfume at the top; The pharaohs even wore wig beards for special occasions. There is evidence of cheaper wool and palm fiber wigs that have replaced the woven gold used in its more expensive counterpart with pearls and linen. The talent of the ancient Egyptians with substitution made it possible to wear wigs and headgear of all social classes; for example. The stiff linen Nemes headdress draped over the shoulders was reserved for the elite to protect the wearer from the sun. On the other hand, headgear like the pschent was exclusive to the pharaoh. Pharaohs also wore different crowns to identify different deities, such as the horned crown of the goddess Hathor. In both social classes the children were depicted with a strand of hair on the right side of the head. The most common headgear was the kaften, a striped square of fabric worn by men.

Ornaments could be worn by anyone and were even woven into the hair, resulting in wigs with decorative embellishments. A special piece of jewelry that the Egyptians produced was gorgerin, a collection of metal disks that rested on the breast skin or a short-sleeved shirt and were tied at the back. Some of the lowest people of the time also created many different types of piercings and body decorations; some of these even included genital piercings, which were commonly found on female prostitutes of the time.

It was common for ancient Egyptians to be covered in jewelry because they believed it was becoming more attractive to the gods. The upper class of the Egyptians were fascinated by gold jewelry. They believe that gold is the color of the sun and it symbolizes the permanent and immortal nature of the sun because this metal does not corrode or oxidize over time. Accessories have often been embellished with inlaid precious and semi-precious stones such as emeralds, pearls, and lapis lazuli to create intricate patterns inspired by nature. Common motifs were white lotus flowers, palm leaves and even animals that represented the gods. Although the underlayer jewelry had similar motifs and designs, they were made with cheaper substitute materials. Copper was used in place of gold and glazed glass or faience - a mixture of ground quartz and dye - to imitate gemstones. The most popular stones were lapis lazuli, carnelian and turquoise. Jewels were heavy and quite bulky, which would suggest an Asian influence. The lower classes wore small and simple glassware; Bracelets were heavy too. They carried a large disk as a chain of strength, sometimes called an aegis. Gold was abundant in Nubia and was imported for jewelry and other decorative arts.

Ancient Minoan clothing
As elsewhere, Cretan clothing was well documented in their works of art in ancient times, where many items worn by priestesses and priests seem to reflect the clothing of most. Wool and flax were used. Spinning and weaving were domestic activities that used a technique similar to that used by the Egyptians of the time, and dyeing was the only commercial process that was consistent with all others in ancient times. Fabrics were embroidered. Crimson was most commonly used in dyeing four different shades.

Female Minoan dress
At the beginning of the culture, the loincloth was used by both sexes. The women of Crete wore the garment as an underskirt rather than the men by lengthening it. They are often depicted in statuettes with a large dagger on their belt. The provision of items to ensure personal safety was undoubtedly one of the characteristics of female clothing in the Neolithic, as traces of the practice were found in the peat bogs of Denmark until the Bronze Age.

Cretan women's clothing contained the first sewn garments known in history. The dresses were long and low-necked, with the bodice open almost to the waist, leaving the breasts exposed. Dresses were often accompanied by the Minoan corset, an early form of corset designed as a tight-fitting blouse to narrow the waist, as a narrow waist was valued in Minoan culture. The belt, also kept tight, was used to narrow the waist in front of the corset, a long or short coat or hat was used to complement the female outfit. Ancient brooches, widely used in the Mediterranean, were in use throughout the period.

Male Minoan dress
Virtually all men wore loincloths. In contrast to the Egyptians, the Shanti varied according to its cut and was usually arranged as a short skirt or apron and ended in a point that protruded like a tail. The fabric passed between the legs, was adjusted with a belt and was almost certainly decorated with metal. It was worn by all men in society, as well as a standalone garment for women during athletic activities such as the bull jump.

In addition to the Cretan styles, the Cycladic clothing was worn across the continent as trousers. A triangular front left the tops of the thighs exposed. You could say that it was the clothing of an athletic population because of that and because the chest was always bare. It was sometimes covered with a barrel, probably ritual. However, long clothing was worn to protect against bad weather and eventually a woolen coat was used by the Greeks.

Men had long hair that flowed to their shoulders; however, different types of headgear were common, types of bonnets and turbans, probably skin. Shoes were boots made of skin, probably chamois, and were only used to go out of the house where one went barefoot, just like in the sanctuaries and palaces. People who study this matter have noticed that the outside stairs are considerably worn, the inside hardly. It is known that later, entering a house - this custom was already used in Crete. The boots had a slightly raised end, suggesting an Anatolian origin, similar to those on the frescoes from Etruria.

Old Israelite clothing

Israelite man
The earliest and most basic item of clothing was the ‘ezor or ḥagor, an apron around the hips or loins made from animal skins in primitive times. It was a simple piece of cloth that was worn in various modifications but was always worn next to the skin. Garments were held together by a belt or belt, also known as an “ezor” or “agor”.

The Ezor was later ousted by the kuttoneth among the Hebrews. an undertunic. In Assyrian art, the kuttoneth appears as a tight-fitting undergarment that sometimes only extends to the knee, sometimes to the ankle. The kuttoneth corresponds to the underclothing of modern farm workers in the Middle East: a coarse cotton tunic with wide sleeves and open at the chest. Anyone who was only dressed in a kuttoneth was considered naked.

Outer clothing
The simla was the heavy outer garment or scarf in various forms. It consisted of a large, rectangular piece of coarse, heavy wool material that was sewn together so roughly that the front could no longer be opened, leaving two openings for the arms. Flax is another possible material.

Any respectable man usually wore the simla over the kuttoneth (see Isaiah 20: 2-3), but since the simla was a hindrance to work, it was either left at home or removed at work. (See Matthew 24:18). From this simple object of the common people the richly decorated coat of the wealthy developed, which reached from the neck to the knees and had short sleeves.

Religious clothing
The Torah commands that the Israelites wear tassels, or fringes, attached to the corners of robes.

Phylacteries or tefillin (Hebrew: ְפְִפְִפִִִּּן) are used in New Testament times (see Matthew 23: 5). Tefillin are boxes with biblical verses attached to the forehead and arm by leather straps.

Depictions show some Hebrews and Syrians bareheaded or just wearing a ribbon to hold their hair together. Undoubtedly, Hebrew peasants also wore headgear similar to the modern keffiyeh, a large square piece of woolen cloth folded diagonally into a triangle. The crease is worn across the forehead, with the keffiyeh loosely draped around the back and shoulders, often held in place by a string circlet. Men and women of the upper class wore a kind of turban, a cloth wound around the head. The shape varied widely.

Leather sandals were worn to protect the feet from sand and moisture. Sandals could also be made of wood with leather straps (Genesis 14:23; Isaiah 5:27). Sandals were not worn in the home or in the sanctuary.

Israelite women
A woman's robes were mostly similar to those of men: they wore Simla and Kuttoneth. Apparently, women's robes also differed from those of men (see Deuteronomy 22: 5).Women's clothes were probably longer (cf. Nahum 3: 5, Jeremiah 13:22, Jeremiah 13:26, Isaiah 47: 2), had sleeves (2 Samuel 13:19), were probably brighter colors and more ornamented, and possibly were of finer material.

Israelite women wore veils in public, which distinguished them from women in pagan ancient societies. Even when the habit of veiling began to wane among other ancient societies, Israelite women retained it for religious identification. Shawls dictated by Jewish piety and other forms of headgear were also worn by ancient Israelite women in cities like Jerusalem.

Ancient Greek clothing

Ion. Clothing was mostly homemade and often served many purposes (such as bedding). Despite popular imagination and media depictions of completely white clothing, elaborate designs and bright colors were preferred.

Ancient Greek clothing was made of linen or wool fabrics, which were usually rectangular. The clothing was secured with ornamental clips or pins (περόνη, perónē; see fibula), and a belt, sash or belt (zone) could secure the waist.

Peplos, chitons
The inner tunic was a peplos or chiton. The peplos was worn by women. Usually it was a heavier wool dress, more pronounced Greek, with its shoulders clasped. The top of the peplos was folded to the waist to form an apoptygma. The chiton was a simple tunic made of lighter linen that was worn by both sexes. The men's chitons hung on their knees while the women's chitons fell on their ankles. Often the chiton is shown as folded. Any item of clothing could be pulled under the belt to button the fabric: kolpos.

Strophion, epiblei, veil
A strophy was an undergarment that women sometimes wore in the middle of the body, and a scarf (epibleta) could be draped over the tunic. Women were dressed similarly in most areas of ancient Greece, although in some regions they also wore a loose veil at public events and in the market.

The chlamys was made from a seamless rectangle of wool material that men wore as a cloak; it was about the size of a blanket, usually bordered. The chlamys were typical Greek military clothing from the 5th to 3rd centuries BC. As if worn by soldiers, it could be wrapped around the arm and used as a light shield in combat.

The basic outer garment in winter was the himation, a larger coat worn over peplos or chlamys. The himation was perhaps most influential in later fashion.

Athletics and nudity
During the classical period in Greece, male nudity was religiously sanctioned after profound changes in culture. After that time, male athletes entered ritualized athletic competitions like the classic version of the old Olympics when women were excluded from competition naked except as owners of racing cars. Their old events have been discontinued, one of which (a run for women) was the only original competition. Myths tell that after this ban, a woman was discovered who had won the competition while wearing the clothes of a man who introduced the policy of nudity among competitors, which prevented such embarrassment again.

Ancient Roman and Italian clothing
The clothes of ancient Italy, like those of ancient Greece, are known from art, literature and archeology. Although aspects of Roman clothing have tremendous appeal to the Western imagination, the clothing and customs of the Etruscan civilization that inhabited Italy before the Romans are less well imitated, but the similarity in their clothing can be noticed. The Etruscan culture is from 1200 BC. Dated to the first two phases of the Roman period. In its greatest expansion during the founding period of Rome and the Roman Empire, it flourished in three city leagues: from Etruria, from the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, and from Latium and Campania. Rome was on Etruscan territory. There is considerable evidence that early Rome was ruled by Etruscans until the Romans in 391 BC. Chr. Veii plundered.

In ancient Rome, boys were cremated after the age of 16 as a sign of growing up. Roman girls also wore white until they were married to say they were pure and virgin.

Toga and tunics
Probably the most important item in the ancient Roman wardrobe was the toga, a one-piece wool dress that hung loosely around the shoulders and body. Togas could be packaged in a number of ways, and they grew larger and bulky over the centuries. Some innovations were purely fashionable. Since it was not easy to wear a toga without tripping over it or tripping over curtains, some variations of the packaging served a practical function. Other styles were needed, for example to cover the head during ceremonies.

Historians believe that the toga was originally worn by all Romans during the centuries of the Roman monarchy and its successor, the Roman Republic. At the time, it is believed that the toga was worn without underwear. Free citizens had to wear togas. because only slaves and children wore tunics. In the 2nd century BC However, when it was worn over a tunic, the tunic became the basic item of clothing for both men and women. Women wore an outer dress known as a stole. It was a long, pleated dress that was similar to the Greek chitons.

Although togas are now considered to be the only clothing in ancient Italy, many other styles of clothing were in fact worn and are also known in images seen in works of art from that period. For example, garments could be quite specialized for warfare, certain professions, or sports. In ancient Rome, women athletes wore leather briefs and bras for maximum coverage but the ability to compete.

Girls and boys under the age of puberty sometimes wore a special type of toga with a reddish-purple band at the bottom, called a toga praetexta. This toga was also worn by magistrates and high priests as an indication of their status. The toga Candida, a particularly whitewashed toga, was worn by political candidates. Prostitutes wore the toga muliebris rather than the tunics of most women. The toga pulla was dark colored and worn in mourning, while the toga purpurea made of purple-dyed wool was worn in times of triumph and the Roman emperor.

After the transition of the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire in c. 44 BC Only men who were citizens of Rome wore the toga. Women, slaves, foreigners and others who were not citizens of Rome wore tunics and were not allowed to wear the toga. For the same reason, Roman citizens had to wear the toga when conducting official business. Over time, the toga evolved from a national to a ceremonial costume. Different types of togas indicated age, occupation, and social rank. The Roman writer Seneca criticized men who wore their toga too loosely or carelessly. He also criticized men who wore what was considered feminine or outrageous styles, including togas, which were slightly transparent.

The toga of the adult citizens, the toga virilis, was made of pure white wool and was worn after the age of 14. A woman convicted of adultery could be forced to wear a toga as a mark of shame and as a sign of the loss of her feminine identity.

The ancient Romans knew that their clothing was different from that of other peoples. In particular, they noticed the long trousers worn by people who thought they were barbarians from the north, including the Germanic Franks and Goths. The figures depicted on ancient Roman armored breastplates often include barbaric warriors in shirts and trousers.

Symbolism and influence
Roman clothing acquired symbolic significance for later generations. Roman armor, especially the muscle armor, symbolized amazing powers. In Europe during the Renaissance (15th and 16th centuries AD) painters and sculptors sometimes depicted rulers wearing pseudo-Roman military clothing, including a cuirass, military coat, and sandals.

Later, during the French Revolution, attempts were made to dress officials in uniforms based on the Roman toga to symbolize the importance of citizenship for a republic. The 18th century CE freedom capsule, a rimless floppy cap that hugs the head, was adopted by the simple revolutionaries and was based on a hood worn by freed slaves in ancient Rome, the Phrygian cap.

The modern western bride has also inherited elements from ancient Roman wedding attire, such as the bridal veil and wedding ring.

Roman military clothing, including cuirass, military overcoat, and sandals.

Later, during the French Revolution, attempts were made to dress officials in uniforms based on the Roman toga to symbolize the importance of citizenship for a republic. The 18th century CE freedom capsule, a rimless floppy cap that hugs the head, was adopted by the simple revolutionaries and was based on a hood worn by freed slaves in ancient Rome, the Phrygian cap.

The modern western bride has also inherited elements from ancient Roman wedding attire, such as the bridal veil and wedding ring.

Old India clothes
Evidence of ancient Indian clothing can be found in figures, stone carving sculptures, cave paintings, and human art forms found in temples and monuments. These sculptures show human figures wearing clothes around their bodies, such as sari, turbans and dhoti. The upper classes of society wore fine muslin and imported silks, while the common classes wore locally made fabrics such as cotton, flax, wool, linen, and leather.

India was one of the first places where cotton was grown and used as early as the Harappan era (3300-1300 BC). A recent analysis of Harappan silk fibers in pearls has shown that silk was made by the process of rolling up, an art known only to China until the early centuries CE. The only evidence found of clothing is from the iconography and some excavated Harappan figures, usually unclothed. These little depictions show that men usually wore a long piece of cloth that was slung over their waist and fastened at the back (just like a tight fitting dhoti). Turbans were worn, and a long robe over the left shoulder was worn by those of high social rank. The normal clothing of women at the time was a very sparse skirt up to the knee length and left bare waist and cotton headdresses. Jewelry was very popular, and men wore their hair in various styles with beards trimmed.

Vedic Period (c. 1750 - 500 BC) Garments for both sexes contain a single cloth wrapped around the entire body and draped over the shoulder. An undergarment called Paridhana was folded in front and tied with a belt (Mekhala) and worn with a shawl-shaped overdress called uttariya. Orthodox men and women usually wore the uttariya by just throwing it over their left shoulder, in the style called upavita. The undergarment was called “Nivi” or “Nivi Bandha” while the upper body was mostly bare. A garment called a pravara was worn in cold weather. Sometimes the poor wore the undergarment as a loincloth, while the rich wore foot-length pravara to show their prestige. Vedic women mainly wore the sari, which is derived from शशटी, the Sanskrit for “strips of cloth” śāṭī. In the later Vedic period, choli and dupatta, a smaller version of the sari, were introduced. The dupatta was worn with ghaghara (an ankle-length skirt). Vedic men wore lungi (a robe like a sarong and dhoti, a single shawl that was wrapped around the waist and legs and was still traditionally worn by men in the villages. Wool, linen, silk and cotton were the main fibers for the Making clothing stripes and plaid gold jewelry remained very popular.

Evidence of clothing worn during the Maurya Empire (322-185 BC) comes from statues of yakshini, the feminine epitome of fertility. The most common clothing of the time was an undergarment called an antariya, usually made of cotton, linen or muslin, decorated with precious stones and tied in a loop knot in the middle of the waist. A lehenga style shawl was wrapped around the hips to form a tubular skirt. Another ornate long piece of cloth that hung from the front and wrapped around the waist was called a patka. Mauryan Reich ladies often wore an embroidered fabric waistband with drums knots at the ends. As an upper garment, the main garment of people was uttariya, a long scarf that was worn in various ways.

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