# What is the quantization of charge 1

## Physics compact, basic knowledge 6, textbook

Circuit 12 88 Electricity RG 6.4 and G 6.4 For a long time it was assumed that charges only appear as integer multiples of the elementary charge. The charge size of the most elementary particles, the so-called quarks, was determined as 1/3 or 2/3 of the elementary charge - however, quarks cannot be observed individually. Together they form elementary particles with integer charges (e.g. proton) or neutral particles (e.g. neutron). One also says: The electrical charge occurs in a quantized manner. This quantization of the charge is particularly noticeable in the atomic range. Because the elementary charge is so tiny, there are so large amounts of charge in electronics and in everyday life in general that the charge appears as a continuous quantity. For the following nuclear decays, check whether the sum of the charges is the same on both sides! A1 288 88 Ra w 224 86 Ra + 4 2 a A2 14 7 N + 4 2 aw 17 8 O + 1 1 p A3 9 4 Be + 4 2 aw 12 6 C + 1 0 n A4 Investigate the validity of the conservation of charge using the chemical reaction given as an example! Mg 2+ + 2Cl - w MgCl 2 The law of charge retention also applies in closed circuits: If the battery is gradually "discharged" while operating a flashlight, the charge carriers have migrated from one battery pole to the other and have given up their energy in the incandescent lamp. A5 Repeat the bond types (basic knowledge 5, section 5.1.2) and compare with the types of power lines (page 89)! The electrical charge occurs measurably only in integer multiples of the elementary charge. Elementary charge W1 W1 W1 W1 W1 In all processes in nature, the sum of the charges remains constant. We check this with the following examples: Obviously, the following applies to nuclear decays and chemical reactions: Electric charges are neither lost nor generated. Example of neutron decay A neutron can decay into a proton, an electron and another neutral elementary particle, an antineutrino: 1 0 nw 1 1 p + e - + _ o _ o… antineutrino If the sum is formed of the elementary charges on the right-hand side, the result is, as with the uncharged neutron, the charge 0. Example Radioactive carbon Radioactive carbon 14 6 C breaks down into the nitrogen atom 14 7 N and further particles: 14 6 C w 14 7 N + e - + _ o _ o… Antineutrino A neutron of the atomic nucleus is transformed into a proton, an electron and an antineutrino during this decay. After the nuclear disintegration, the atomic number (with the same mass number) has increased by 1. The sum of the elementary charges on the left-hand side of the reaction equation (6e) is equal to the sum of the elementary charges on the right: 7e - e = 6e Example Formation of table salt If the metal sodium is burned in chlorine gas, sodium chloride (NaCl, "Table salt"). We consider the individual reaction steps: Na w Na + + e - Cl + e - w Cl - Na + + Cl - w NaCl (charge conservation) In a closed system, the sum of the electrical charges always remains the same. Law of the conservation of the charge Fig. 88.1 The charge also remains in the processes in particle physics. For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv