How do laws affect a person?


Federal laws that must be obeyed throughout Germany are passed jointly by the Bundestag and Bundesrat. State laws that only apply in one federal state are passed by the respective state parliaments.
In a democracy, the respective majority in parliament can turn their programs and ideas into reality by passing appropriate laws. Depending on what is important to her, she can legally establish a national park or expand an airport.

In Germany, the Bundestag and Bundesrat pass federal laws that apply throughout Germany, and state parliaments pass state laws that only apply in the respective federal state.

Drafts for a new law can come from members of the Bundestag, the Bundesrat or the federal government. In practice, most new laws come from the government. In a federal ministry, an employee first works out a draft on the instructions of his minister. He gets statements from interest groups and coordinates with other ministries. He forwards the finished draft to the minister, who examines it and then submits it to the cabinet, i.e. the entire federal government. If the cabinet approves the draft, it is forwarded to the Bundesrat and then - with the Bundesrat's opinion - to the Bundestag.

Now begins a cumbersome path through the committees.
The plenary session of the Bundestag discusses the draft in general and transfers it to the responsible Bundestag committee (1st reading). After the first round of deliberations has taken place there, the discussion takes place again (2nd reading). Afterwards a final decision on the law will be made (3rd reading). The government's drafts are almost always accepted by the parliamentary majority, because they themselves put this government into the saddle. Now the Federal Council has to give its approval. Political complications can arise if the opposition parties, which were unable to assert themselves as a minority in the Bundestag, have a majority in the state governments and thus in the Bundesrat.

However, if the Federal Council does not agree and calls the mediation committee, it can only stop things from going through simple laws. The Bundestag can override its objection. It is different with laws that are subject to approval according to the Basic Law. If the Federal Council does not agree to the compromise proposals of the mediation committee, the law has failed and is final.

Once the law has passed through the Bundestag and Bundesrat, the Federal Government forwards it to the Federal President, who signs it and announces it in the Federal Law Gazette. Only then does it come into force.
The legislative process in detail.

Source: Thurich, Eckart: pocket politik. Democracy in Germany. revised New edition Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education 2011.