How do wingless airplanes generate lift
Can planes fly without wings but with a horizontal stabilizer?
I don't know about other aircraft, but I can say that you can remove the wings of an aerobatic plane from Yack RC and take off, climb up, flatten and do a level flight, and barrel rolls. Inside loops, Cuban 8s and high-rate rolls. Finally, you can safely land the aircraft. All of this was demonstrated in the Real Flight Simulator.
There are some techniques that are not normally used in wing flight that need to be understood and used in order to make this wingless flight possible. (1) The prop pull vector must be high enough above the ground so that the buoyancy component of the vector is greater than the weight of the trunk. Remember the plane does vary slightly as there are no wings. The hulls could be built much lighter since the hull is not loaded by wings, and the maneuvers, with the exception of high speed rolls, are slow turning speed and pitch attitude, which means the g-forces are much smaller and more insignificant. Pulling out of a loop on the floor is made possible by the tail pushing the back of the fuselage down, lifting the nose up and causing the tail to fly under the flight axis. Some of the lift for the hoist is distributed along the aircraft fuselage as wind hitting the bottom of the aircraft creates lift. This distribution of lift along the entire fuselage distributes the tensile forces along the entire fuselage. Net low g force concentration vary. A wing's center of lift is outside the fuselage, with the position of the outboard causing a bending moment on the wing at the attachment to the fuselage. This creates a wing fracture stress under high g-forces. The tension is also at the attachment point of the wing, and this tension is countered by the weight of the fuselage distributed in front of and behind the wing. The fuselage must therefore withstand the central load from front to back in order to prevent the wing connection from breaking. No such problem with the wingless plane.
(2) With no wings adding weight, the wingless airplane can take off in different space. The higher the landing gear (assuming a stern tug design), the higher the angle of incidence of the hull and the axis of the propeller pull. By building ever larger main landing gear, the aircraft can take off at ever shorter intervals to the point where the aircraft would take off straight up if the fuselage axis were straight. Without the wing weight, the aircraft would vary quickly. (3) By the time the aircraft's wheels leave the ground, the washing of the prop and its axis of pull coincide with the fuselage, with the washing hitting the elevator and rudder and the top of the rudder being above the axis of the props. The right rudder turns the plane on the ground to the right, but since it is above the trunk axis, the right rudder also induces the left roll. This roll is against the curve and results in an unstable variation, the plane can easily be rolled over on the side if the width of the landing gear is insufficient to counteract the roll vector. For this reason, it is proposed that a wingless airplane have a wide landing gear.
(4) As soon as the wingless aircraft leaves the ground, the nose initially rises while the tail is still on the ground. This results in a steeper angle of the fuselage to the aircraft direction and the propeller wash (as seen when a smoke screen is used on the front of the fuselage) completely misses the tail sections with the wash flying over them. The aircraft's roll axis is concentric to the propeller wash. If the rudder is now turned to the right, the vector of the rudder turns the plane in the direction of the flight axis to the right. However, if you turn right and the rudder is below the roll axis, a roll moment is induced on the flight axis, which rolls the plane to the right. In this fuselage, which is angled under the flight axis, the rudder takes over the turning function and the rolling function. If the airspeed is too fast, the flight axis and the fuselage axis are close to each other and the rudder again behaves in the opposite direction to the rudder entrance. Flying with a nose that is too low leads to loss of control and can lead to extremely fast roll rates. It therefore becomes of the utmost importance that the wingless aircraft is flown at different elevations. In level flight, the increase in speed begins with the leveling of the fuselage and leads to a loss of control and stability. Simply decrease the power setting to counteract this leveling out as the speed increases. This also means that the wingless plane does not go straight up because the torso angle to the flight angle is 0 and the rudder causes the loss of control. At the top of an inner loop, the tail pulls the tail over the top, maintaining the role and turning function of the oar.
(5) Turn: The rudder in the high nosepiece swings the nose, but it also supports the aircraft. When you initiate the right rudder, the wingless aircraft will tilt to the right. At this point, the operator simply pulls the elevator back, causing the aircraft to turn much like a winged aircraft, a coordinated efficient turn.
(6) Landing: A few prayers will help! To lose altitude, do not press the nose down on the elevator, as this will cause the stern to lift onto the propeller wash, causing instability and loss of control. Instead, pull the power back to keep the elevator full. The plane descends at the desired speed. The aircraft appears to hit hard on touchdown, but the front wheels and tail wheel meet or the tail wheel absorbs the impact first. Also, remember that the weight of the wings is missing. The aircraft can land at different rates of descent without destroying the landing gear or the fuselage. I broke many main landing gears that land hard winged aircraft. To date, I haven't broken a landing gear that landed without a wing many times. Remember that when landing without a wing, the moment the stern and net are on the ground, the propeller washer and the flight axis are level with the rudder and the aircraft can easily tip over when the rudder is operated. Use the rudder wisely until the roll speed has slowed down.
(7) I suggest that all aerobatic planes have shared controls on the elevator. The elevator is located in the propeller wash and is effective in the slow nose-up flight. When the right aereolon is initiated, the right side of the elevator rotates slightly downward and the left side upward. This division could be done by putting separate servo controls on each independent side of the elevator, or the 2 servos to control the push rod could be routed to each side of the elevator, but the servos could be attached to each other and a third servo could pull the two servos to operate the elevator function. This would give the aircraft operator the ability to control the bank, not relying on the bank to be under the airflow of the prop and the flight axis of the flight.
With the modifications mentioned above, can the aircraft work in the real world? I think so. A wingless flight with a split elevator would open a whole new world to freestyle RC flight. The wings could be easily detachable before take-off or put down during flight. The Real Flight Simulators did not allow pilots to develop wing flying skills. These skills were developed during the inevitable crashes without the need to rebuild expensive equipment. Just press the reset button!
The bottom line is the answer is a surprising YES! Below is a YouTube video of 17 minuets that I posted with aerobatics and without a wing:
Spike Selig Long-time pilot and specialist in flight dynamics
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