What is the compound name of CaWO3
Chemical historical data of inorganic substances
1 Chemical historical data of inorganic substances Rudolf Werner Soukup
2 Title: Franciscus Petrarca, Sebastian Brandt, Von der Artzney bayder Glück, Vonn Alchemey, Augspurg MDXXXII Stibnit: Wikimedia Commons, DSCF0504.jpg Crystal structure of the stibnite: () 2
3 Foreword The immediate reason to start working on a chemical-historical lexicon of inorganic substances was a discussion of lexicographical and terminological problems for the recording of specialist terms at the Herzog August-Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel in the summer chemical dissertation from 1817 to translate the names in use today. Once again I was painfully aware of the lack of relevant reference works or databases. What were the same substances called in the 19th, 18th and 16th centuries? What about synonyms? What to think of aliases? In this context, it is also important to clarify the following questions: Who was the first to produce and characterize which substance? Who gave what name? Who was the first to set up a formula or set the structure? While it is relatively easy to obtain chemical historical information about the few more than 100 elements of the periodic table, it becomes difficult and arduous with the millions of compounds. The situation is softened a little today by the fact that a relatively large number of publications from earlier centuries, which until a few years ago were difficult to access, were often banned on high bookshelves in the basement of libraries and are now accessible online and can be searched for keywords. A major problem in the history of chemistry, which cannot be elegantly solved, is that the possibilities to purify substances and also to measure this purity really only existed in the course of the 19th century. The further you go back, the more impure the substances used become, so that information (e.g. from the 16th century) about certain metal compounds often enough has nothing to do with the specified substance, but can only be ascribed to the accompanying substances contained therein (the impurities) . This caveat! is therefore always appropriate when it comes to historical fabric names. The selection of the keywords included in this data collection is more or less arbitrary. Attempts were made to take into account the materials used in the time of alchemy in the 16th century, but also not to forget important names of Arabic and even Alexandrian alchemy. A focus was placed on the late 17th and early 18th century. The following criteria were decisive for the later period: importance of the substance for industrial purposes, importance for scientific developments. Certain developments in metal complex chemistry and organometallic chemistry of the 19th and 20th centuries were also taken into account. This edition is the second version published on-line. Improved ones will follow in the coming months. The use of electronic search systems is recommended to quickly find the keywords. The appendix also serves this purpose. Perchtoldsdorf in January 2017 Rudolf Werner Soukup 3
5 UIPAC name Formula Actinium Ac Aluminum Al Old designations Notes The previously adopted statement that André Louis Debierne discovered actinium in 1899 while processing the pitchblende residues of the two Curies, was seriously questioned in 1971 by Harold W. Kirby. According to Kirby, it would have been Friedrich Oskar Giesel who in 1902 was the first to hold actinium-containing preparations. Giesel called the new element Emanium. Debierne's suggestion Actinium (from ακτίνος = ray) prevailed. Around 1909 it was Carl Auer von Welsbach who produced by far the purest actinium preparations that glow in the dark in his laboratory in Treibach. Humphry Davy tried unsuccessfully to make aluminum in 1808. (The element name is derived from the Latin word alumen for> alum.) The first representation of elemental aluminum - albeit in a rather impure form - was achieved in 1825 by Hans Christian Ørsted by converting> aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam. Friedrich Wöhler used pure potassium as a reducing agent in 1827 and thus obtained a much purer aluminum. Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville used sodium as a reducing agent in 1846 (published in 1859). Sainte-Claire Deville and Robert W. Bunsen succeeded independently in the electrolytic production of aluminum from molten NaAlCl by Charles Martin Hall and Paul Héroult, the electrolysis process named after them Developed for the production of aluminum: the Hall-Héroult process, in which> aluminum oxide is mixed with cryolite and the melting point is lowered from 2045 C to approx. 950 C. From 1889 Carl Josef Bayer developed the Bayer process named after him for the production of pure aluminum. 5 Literature references primary / secondary F. O. Giesel, About radium and radioactive substances B. dt. Chem. Ges. 35 (1902); F. O. Giesel, Ueber den Emanationskörper (Emanium), B. dt. Chem. Ges. 37 (1904); Kirby, H. W., The Discovery of Actinium, Isis 62 (1971); Wiki Actinium () H. Davy, Electrochemical Researches on the Decomposition of the Earths, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 98 (1808); H. Ch. Ørsted, Oversigt over det K. Dansk Videnskab. Selskabs forhandlingar, May 31, 1825, p. 15; F. Wöhler, About aluminum, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 2nd ser., 11 (1827); H. E. Sainte-Claire Deville, De l'aluminium et de ses combinaisons chimiques, Compt. Rend., 6 février 1854, 279ff; Greenwood, Earnshaw, p. 267; Wiki aluminum ()
6 aluminum (I) chloride AlCl aluminum carbide Al 4C 3 aluminum chloride AlCl 3 aluminum nitride AlN nium oxide (from bauxite) as the starting product of the fused-salt electrolysis. AlCl was discovered in 1987 by J. Cernicharo, M. Guelin in interstellar matter. The salt was first produced in 1989 by M. Tacke and Hansgeorg Schnöckel. The aluminum carbide was first described by Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville in 1855. In 1897, Henri Moissan melted alumina and calcium carbide together in an electric furnace to produce it. Joseph Franz von Jacquin reported in 1793 in the chapter On the other alum earthy middle salts that hydrochloric acid combined with pure alum earth (i.e. Al 2O 3) results in hydrochloric acid alum earth (Argilla salita, Murias aluminae), which is a mass that dissolves in the air; In 1810 he mentions the name Alumina muriatica. Johann Andreas Scherer explained in 1792 that the names murias aluminosus and sel marin argileux mean the same thing. Antoine Francois Fourcroy knew such a sel marin argileux as early as 1786. A production of anhydrous AlCl 3 from alumina and HCl gas was protected by a patent in 1891 by C. A. Faure. The existence of the aluminum nitrogen compound AlN is stated in 1862 by Friedrich Briegleb and Johann Georg Anton Geuther 6 J. Cernicharo, M. Guelin, "Metals in IRC Detection of NaCl, AlCl, and KCl, and tentative detection of AlF". Astronomy and Astrophysics 183 (1987) L10 L12; M. Tacke, H. Schnöckel, Metastable AlCl as a Solid and in Solution, Inorg. Chem. 28 (1989); H. É. Sainte-Claire Deville, Recherches sur les métaux, et en particulier sur l'aluminium. et sur une nouvelle forme du silicon, Ann. Chim. Physi. 43 (1855) 15; H. Moissan, Nouvelle method de preparation des carbures par action du carbure de calcium sur les oxydes, Compt. Rend. 125 (1897) 840; A. F. Fourcroy, Elemens d histoire naturelle et de chimie, Paris 1786, p. 324; Scherer 1792, p. 111; Jacquin 1793, p. 194; Jacquin 1810, p. 214; C. A. Faure (Paris), Method of Making Aluminum Chloride 1891, D.R.P. DE A; F. Briegleb, J. G. A. Geuther, About nitrogen magnesium and the affinities of
7 been. A pure product was extracted in 1876 by J. W. Mallet. At the beginning of the 20th century, AlN played an important role in connection with the Bayer nitride process patented by Ottokar Serpek for the production of pure Al 2O 3. In the 1980s, the importance of this good heat conductor for microelectronics was recognized. Stick gases to metals, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 123 (1862); J. W. Mallet, On aluminum nitride, and the action of metallic aluminum upon sodium carbonate at high temperatures, J. chem. Soc. London 30 (1876) 349; Aluminum oxide Al 2O 3 Al 2O 3. SiO 2.2H 2O e.g. Zeolite A Na 12 (Al 12Si 12O 48). 27 H 2O aluminum silicates Amidomercury (II) chloride HgNH 2Cl Joseph Franz von Jacquin recommended in 1810 to convert alum into> ammonia alum for the production of alum earth, dissolve this in hydrochloric acid and make it crystallize by evaporation. In 1817 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac produced aluminum oxide from> ammonia alum by annealing, during which NH 3 and SO 2 escape. In 1845 Friedrich Wöhler published a process in which he obtained pure clay from alum and CaO. The process developed by Carl Bayer in 1889 is based on bauxite. The earliest mention of a Lemnian earth goes back to Theophrastus in the 3rd century BC. In the first century AD, Dioscurides reported that the Lemnian soil from the island of Lemnos came from a certain cave-like tunnel. The white clay was called bolus alba. The red bolus rubra contains hematite additions. In 1756, Axel Friedrich von Cronstedt named those aluminum silicates zeolites that seemed to boil when heated with a fan burner because of the open silicate structure. The preparation Mercurius praecipitatus albus, as it was produced in the 19th century, was not> calomel but amidomercury (II) chloride. 7 O. Serpek, Austria. Chem. Z. 1905, 105; Ullmann, Vol. 1, 1914, p. 293; Jacquin 1810, pp. 206f .; J.-L. Gay-Lussac, Nouveau Procédé pour preparer l'alumine, Ann. de Chim. Phys. 5 (1817) 101; F. Wöhler, On the Knowledge of Aluminum, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 53 (1845) 422; Oraculum 1755; Greenwood, Earnshaw, p.460; Schneider, p. 80;
8 Ammonia NH 3 Gaseous ammonia was first mentioned in 1716 by Johannes Kunckel. The gas was first isolated in 1774 by Joseph Priestley as "alkaline air". Further research was carried out by Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Claude-Louis Berthollet, who recognized the composition of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, and William Henry, who determined the exact ratio of the two elements of 1: 3 and thus the chemical formula NH 3. Joseph Franz von Jacquin gave in 1793 as the production method for the pure or caustic ammonia (Ammonia pura seu caustica) in the 4th edition of 1810, he already spoke of ammonia gas - the reaction of living lime (CaO) with the volatile alkali salt (NH 4) 2CO 3 at. In the coal gasification plants, NH 3 was obtained as a by-product in the coke oven gas. Fritz Rothe discovered the manufacturing process using the calcium cyanamide process. In April 1900 Wilhelm Ostwald registered a patent for the "production of ammonia and ammonia compounds from free nitrogen and hydrogen". However, there was no success. In the spring of 1903, the owners and managing directors of the Österreichische Chemische Werke, the brothers Otto and Robert Margulies, turned to Fritz Haber with the same question as to whether it would be a good idea to look for a way to produce ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen. When Haber succeeded in developing such a process after an initial failure in collaboration with Walter Nernst, Carl Bosch, Alwin Mittasch from BASF and others, he wanted to get in touch with the Margulies brothers, who had supported him. However, this was prevented by BASF. The characteristic blue coloration that occurs when alkali metals are dissolved in liquid ammonia was observed by W. Weyl (Humphry Davy saw a reaction of potassium with gaseous NH 3 as early as 8 Jacquin 1793, p. 156; Wilhelm Ostwald, Lebenslinien: Eine Selbstbiographie, Klasing & Co ., Berlin 1926/27, p. 283; W. Weyl, Ueber Metallammoniumverbindungen, Annalen der Physik 197 (1864); Ch. A. Kraus, "Solutions of Metals in Non-Metallic Solvents; I. General Properties of Solutions of Metals in Liquid Ammonia ", 29 (1907); GE Gibson. WL Argo," The Absorption Spectra of the Blue Solutions of Certain Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals in Liquid Ammonia and Methylamine ", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40 (1918 ); EJ Hart, JW Boag, Absorption Spectrum of the Hydrated Electron in Water and in Aqueous Solutions, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84 (1962); U. Schindewolf, KW Böddeker, R. Vogelsgesang, Electrical conductivity of solutions from Sodium in ammonia at - 40 C in the pressure range up to 1500 at, core f research center Karlsruhe 1966,; U. Schindewolf, Physical and chemical properties of solvated electrons, in: J. F. Cordes (ed.), Chemistry and their border areas, BI Mann-
9 around 1808.) Charles A. Kraus identified the species causing the effect as electrons after conductivity measurements in 1907. GE Gibson and WL Argo presented the concept of solvated electrons followed by studies by Edwin J. Hart and Jack W. Boag, from 1966 by Ulrich Schindewolf et al. heim 1970, p. 11ff .; Dietrich Stoltzenberg, Fritz Haber, VCH, Weinheim 1994, pp. 151, 154, 168; R. Rosner, Chemistry in Austria; Böhlau, Vienna 2004, p. 327; Ammonium acetate NH 4CH 3COO ammonium aluminum alum NH 4Al (SO 4) 2. 12H 2O ammonium carbonate (NH 4) 2CO 3 In the form of aqueous solutions, acetic acid ammonia was introduced as a medicinal product as early as 1620 by the spagyric military doctor Raymund Minderer in Augsburg. The name spiritus Mindereri was used for this until the 19th century. According to Ernst Friedrich Anthon (1833), the expression sal ammoniacus liquidus was also used for solid acetas ammoniae, probably because this salt is deliquescent. In 1800 at the latest it became common to leach out alum slate deposits with the help of rotten urine, which led to the formation of ammonium aluminum alum (ammonia alum), e.g. in 1802 in the Friedrich Wilhelm tunnel near Lichtenberg. Ammonium carbonate is a component of deer horn salt. (The main component of the stag's horn salt, however, is the ammonium hydrogen carbonate NH 4HCO 3.) Stag's horn salt also contains certain amounts of ammonium carbamate H 2NCONH 4, which has been obtained for centuries by dry distillation of rasped stag's horn (but also from claws, hooves, etc.) Andreas Libavius used roasted deer horn salt in 1603 in connection with blood preparations. Johann Daniel Major recommended staghorn salt in 1667 to keep blood flowing (see Eckert 1876). Robert Boyle Wiki Ammonia () Wiki Solvated electron () R. Minderer, Medicina militaris seu libellus castrensis euporista et facile parabilia medicamenta continens, Aperger, Augsburg 1620; Anthon 1833, p. 206; August Hirsch, "Minderer, Raymund", General German Biography 21 (1885) 766; G. H. Spörl, fire protection agent at woodworks, monthly newspaper for the improvement of agriculture (Munich) 1/2 (1821) 7; P. Ulstadius, Coelum philosophorum, Lyon 1572, pp. 187f. Andreas Libavius, Alchemia, Kopff, Frankfurt 1597, p. 344; Andreas Libavius, Alchymistische Practic, Saurn, Frankfurt 1603, p. 218; Johann Hartmann, Praxis chymiatrica, Leipzig 1633, p.187: ooks? Id = cahfaaaacaaj & pg = p 9
10 was the first to describe representations of the volatile lye salt in 1684. A recipe with fixed Salammoniacum and Bodaschen (potash) by Matthäus Erbinäus von Brandau (an alchemist in the vicinity of Emperor Rudolf II in Prague around 1600) was printed in 1689. In the case of the spiritus urinae, which already occurs by Raymondus Lullius as Spiritus animalis (or Mercurius animalis) and which, e.g. Ulstadius or Libavius write, was obtained by distillation of (bacterially decomposed) so-called putrefected or rotten urine, it was an aqueous solution of ammonia, ammonium carbonate, ammonium hydrogen carbonate and ammonium carbamate. The preparation of Spiritus salis armoniaci from salmiak and wood ash, in which there is a reaction K 2CO NH 4Cl = (NH 4) 2CO KCl, was described by Johann Hartmann in the early 17th century. In 1793, Siegismund Friedrich Hermbstädt described the production of a sal alcali volatile salis ammoniaci (volatile salmiac salt or aerated volatile alkali salt) from salmiac and potash by heating in a retort, whereby an obviously sublimable salt passes over and the digestive salt (i.e. KCl) remains. 2 NH 4Cl + K 2CO 3 -> (NH 4) 2CO KCl Joseph Franz von Jacquin (1810) differentiates the Alcali volatile (the carbonate ammonia, Ammonium carbonicum) from the Carbonas ammoniae alcalescens, the alkaline carbonate ammonia (Subcarbonas ammoniae), which is an the air becomes neutral. A25 & lpg = PA25 & dq = potash + Salammoniacum & source = bl & ot s = n0ebu_7oeu & sig = nu2ts5mz rfulb8njl2fxqhrfn2a & hl = en & s a = x & ved = 0ahukewjy6bssptqahwewrqkhx0qdr4q6 AEILjAI # v = OnePage & q = Pottasch e% 20salammoniacum & f = false Matthew Erbinäus of Brandau, basic pillars of nature and art: what the Verwandelung the Metals built, besides V. Noble artists performed processes, including one of Th. Paracelsi, who has never been seen in print, Leipzig 1689, p. 21: display / bsb _00023.ht ml Siegismund Friedrich Hermbstädt, Grundriß der Experimantalpharmacie, 2. Teil, Berlin 1793, p. 25; Josef Friedrich Eckert, Objective study on the transfusion of blood and its usability on the battlefield, Perles, Vienna 1876, 3; Jacquin 1810, 280; Anthon, Handwörterbuch 1833, p. 12; Gerald Schröder, The pharmaceutical-chemical products of German pharmacies in the age of chemiatry, Bremen 1957, p. 67ff. 10
11 Ammonium chloride Salmiak NH 4Cl Ammonium iron (II) sulfate Mohr's salt (NH 4) 2Fe (SO 4) 2.6 H 2O The sublimability of salmiac is already described in the writings of the Jabir Corpus. The oldest name that appears in the Arabic scripts is the Persian-Arabic name nusadir. In the translations of the text into Latin, the name sal ammoniacum is used, a name that actually refers to the salt of the ammonium oasis, but which can be chemically identified with table salt: Pliny speaks of Hammoniacus sal in his Nat. Hist. 31/39 in connection with a fossil salt near the temple of Jupiter Ammon in what is now Libya. (This makes it clear that the name ammonia or ammonium ultimately comes from the ancient Egyptian god of wind and fertility, Amon, and from the 11th dynasty onwards it was mixed with the Re cult of Amun-Re.) Liber de inventionis veritatis, which counts the corpus, is reported about the sublimation of sal ammoniac, but also about its production from urine, sweat, rock salt and soot. In 1546 Georg Agricola mentions a natural occurrence of sal ammoniac in the Dead Sea. Angelus Sala produced salmiac from hydrochloric acid and volatile alkali in 1620. In 1810, Jacquin reported about salmiac, which he also called hydrochloric ammonia, sal ammoniacus, Murias ammoniae and Ammonium muriaticum, that it was found in chimneys in Egypt as the product of camel manure burned. This iron (II) salt, which is relatively stable in the air, was named after Karl Friedrich Mohr, who made great contributions to the development of titration in the middle of the 19th century. It was also Mohr who suggested this salt for adjusting potassium permanganate solutions for oxidimetry. Geber, Liber de inventionis veritats, Cap. 4; Georg Agricola, De Natura Fossilium (first edition Basel 1546) Dover pub., Mineola, New York 2004, 41: about / de_natura_fossilium_te xtbook_of_mineralo.html? Id = q NOB-vcob88C & redir_esc = y () A. Sala, Synopsis aphorismorum chymiatric20; Jacquin 1810, 130; Gerhard Bry, Salmiak in: Priesner, Figala, Lexikon 1998, 317f. Wiki Amun and Amun-Re () F. Mohr, textbook on the chemical-analytical titration method, based on own experiments and systematically presented, Vol. 1, Friedrich Vieweg and Son, Braunschweig 1859; Ferenc Szabadváry, History of Analytical Chemistry, Vieweg, Braunschweig 1964, p. 255; 11
12 Ammonium fluoride NH 4F (NH 4) 2PtCl 6 NH 4HSO 4 Ammonium hexacyanoplatinate (IV) Ammonium hydrogen sulfate Ammonium magnesium phosphate NH 4MgPO 4 As Johann Christian Wiegleb discovered as early as 1781, hydrofluoric acid ammonia (Fluas ammoniae, Ammonium fluoricum) attacks glass. In 1813, Humphry Davy observed the formation of white crystals during the action of HF on NH 3. The so-called platinum almiac was produced in 1881 by Karl Seubert and further investigated in 1910 by Ebenezer Henry Archibald. Only in the 4th edition of his textbook from 1810 does Joseph Franz von Jacquin mention the semi-decomposed salt called acidic sulfuric acid ammonia (Sulfas acidulus ammoniae), which forms diamond-shaped crystals and dissolves in the air. The triple salt found in urine was precisely described by Antoine François de Fourcroy and his colleague Vauquelin in 1803 under the French name phosphat ammoniaco-magnésien, after both authors had published references to the occurrence of this salt in 1799 and 1799 respectively. In his Latin dissertation on urine from 1817, Ami Boué spoke of the sal triplex phosphatum ammoniaco magnesianum. Georg Ludwig Ulex found the corresponding mineral struvite in 1846 during excavations under the Church of St. Nikolai in Hamburg. 12 RÖMPPS 1979, vol. 1, p. 188; J. Ch. Wiegleb, Crells new. Entd. 1 (1781) 13; H. Davy, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 1813, 268; K. Seubert, On the Atomic Weight of Platinum, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 207 (1881) 11; E. H. Archibald, Z. anorg. Chem. 60 (1910) 180; Jacquin 1810, p. 153; A. F. de Fourcroy, L.-N. s Vauquelin, "Extrait d un premier mémoire des cit. Fourcroy et Vauquelin, pour servir à l histoire naturelle, chimique et médicale de l urine humaine ”, Annales de Chimie 31 (1799) p, especially p. 66; A. F. de Fourcroy, L.-N. Vauqeulin, "Deuxième mémoire: Pour servir à l histoire naturelle, chimique et médicale de l urine humaine, dans lequel on s occupe spécialement des propriétés de la matière particulière qui le caractérise," Annales de Chimie 32 (1800); ; A. F. de Fourcroy, L.-N. Vauquelin, Mémoire sur la présence d'un nouveau sel phosphorique terreux dans les os des animaux et sur l'analyse de ces organes en général,
13 Annales de Chimie 47 (1803), especially p. 248; Ammonium manganese phosphate Manganese violet NH 4MnP 2O 7 Ammonium nitrate NH 4NO 3 NH 4ClO 4 Ammonium perchlorate Ammonium persulphate (NH 4) 2S 2O 8 Ammonium polysulphide (NH 4) 2S 3 Manganese violet was first produced in 1868 by Thomas Leykauf in Nuremberg, hence the name " Nuremberg Violet ". The ammonium nitrate is said to have been described by Rudolph Glauber as nitrum flammans as early as 1659. Caspar Neuman also studied nitrum flammans (1732), as did Rudolph Augustin Vogel (1762). In 1810, Joseph Franz von Jacquin also referred to ammonium nitrate as Flaming Saltpeter. Synonyms are: ammoniacal saltpeter, nitric almia (Nitrum flammans, Nitrum ammoniacale, Nitras ammoniae and Ammonium nitricum). G. S. Serulla first produced ammonium perchlorate in the early 1830s. Ammonium persulfate is the easiest persulfate to produce. It was obtained in 1893 from K. Elbs by electrolysis of a solution of ammonium sulfate in sulfuric acid. According to Friedrich Ludwig Meissner (1833), the spiritus sulfuris volatilis, which Jean Beguin produced in 1608 by distilling sulfur, unslaked lime and ammonium salt, was hydrothionic acid ammonia and, according to Wolfgang Müller, ammonium polysulphide. Other names - as in Joseph Franz von Jacquin and Ignaz Gruber 1836: Liquor fumans Boylei, volatile sulfur liver. In 13 Boué 1817, f.10r; Seilnacht Manganviolett () C. Neumann, Lectiones publicae from four Subjectis Chimicis, namely from saltpeter, sulfur, spit-glass and iron, Michaelis, Berlin 1732, 108: id = 3m9vaaaacaaj () RA Vogel, Institutiones Chemiae, Göbhard, Bamberg 1762, 205, 295 Jacquin 1810, 116f. Alfred A. Schilt, Anhydrous Perchloric Acid and Perchlorate, Illinois 1979, p. 1: wdoc / download? Doi = & rep = rep1 & type = pdf () K. Elbs, Process for the preparation of ammonium sulphate, J. Prakt. Chem. 48 ( 1893) 186; Jacquin 1810, pp. 252f .; F. L. Meissner, Encyclopedia of Medicinal Chemical Science, Leipzig 1833, Vol. 11, p. 281; Jacquin, Gruber 1836, Volume 1, p. 194; W. Müller, Jean Beguin in:
14 ammonium phosphate (NH 4) 3PO 4 ammonium sulfate (NH 4) 2SO 4 ammonium sulfite (NH 4) 2SO 3 4th edition of his textbook Joseph Franz von Jacquin also mentions the names hydrogenated sulfurized ammonia and sulfuretum hydrogenatum ammoniae. Around 1800, Antoine François de Fourcroy and Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin identified ammonium phosphate as one of the salts found in urine. Joseph Franz von Jacquin mentions Glauber's secret salmiac among sulfuric acid ammonia (Sulfas ammoniae, Ammonium sulfuricum) in the 3rd edition of his textbook (1803). Johann Christian P. Erxleben reported on the sal ammoniacus secretus Glauberi as early as 1784. Georg Christian Lichtenberg said (around 1788): Sal ammoniacus secretus Glauberi. What kind of names are these. They don't make you smarter. Yes, on the contrary, as soon as one becomes wiser, one sees that they are useless and that they have to be thrown away. In 1783 Nicolaus Jacquin emphasized the great volatility of this salt. Also only in the 4th edition of his textbook from 1810 does Joseph Franz von Jacquin list the sulphurous ammonia (Sulfis ammoniae, Ammonium sulfurosum). Lexicon of important chemists, 1989, p. 36; AF de Fourcroy, Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, "Extrait d un premier mémoire des cit. Fourcroy et Vauquelin, pour servir à l histoire naturelle, chimique et médicale de l urine humaine, Annales de Chimie 31 (1799) S, especially see p. 69; AFs de Fourcroy, L.-N. Vauqeulin, "Deuxième mémoire: Pour servir à l histoire naturelle, chimique et médicale de l urine humaine, dans lequel on s occupe spécialement des propriétés de la matière particulière qui le caractérise," Annales de Chimie 32 (1800) S;; Johann Christian P. Erxleben, Beginnings of Chemistry, Göttingen 1784, p. 236; G. Ch.Lichtenberg, Lectures on Nature, Part 1 (approx. 1788); digitized volume 3, page 308 , Line 20 - line 23: () N. Jacquin 1783, p. 217; Jacquin 1803, p. 133f; Jacquin 1810, p. 153; 14
15 Antimony Sb Antimony (III) chloride SbCl 3 Antimony (III) oxide Sb 2O 3 Marcellin Berthelot reported in 1887 that he was analyzing a fragment of a vase (this was then in the Louvre and came from an excavation Ernest de Sarzec near Tello (h) in Chaldea in what is now southern Iraq) found pure antimony (99%). The artifact belongs to the Uruk period, which today dates from 3800 to 3000 BC. Is dated. According to Peter Moorey, it is very likely that native antimony was used as the starting material (the melting point of pure Sb is around C). In any case, the high purity, which was verified in 1975, is astonishing. Vannoccio Biringuccio reports on a regulus antimonii and its use as an alloy component of letter metal in his Pirotechnia by Ètienne-François Geoffroy added the Regule d Antimoine to the list of metals in his affinity table in 1718. Lavoisier added metallic antimony to his list of elements in 1789 under the name antimoine. Paracelsus was the first to produce fairly pure antimony oil (oleum antimonii) from antimonite and HgCl 2. Oswald Croll Leonhard Thurneysser merged Sb 2S 3, NH 4Cl and KNO 3 in 1570. The residues in retort A29 in the Oberstockstall complex indicate that the Thurneysser method was used here. The antimony oil that can be distilled off at C (or the antimony butter, butyrum antimonii, which has solidified below 73 ° C.) was generally converted to mercurius vitae (> antimony oxychloride). At the turn of the 17th to the 18th century, the terms hydrochloric spitglaz or Murias stibii were in use. The antimony oxides Sb 2O 3 and Sb 2O 4 were already known in the 14th century. Paracelsus produced Flores antimonii by giving it a fine gray shine. 15 Marcellin Pierre Eugène Berthelot, The Metals of Ancient Chaldea, Popular Science Monthly 32 (1887) p. 223; Peter Roger Stuart Moorey, Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence, Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake 1999, p. 241; V. Biringuccio, De la pirotechnia libri X., Venice 1540, Book II, Cap. 3, f.27v; IX. Book, cap. 7, f. 138v; Paracelsus 3, 150 L. Thurneysser, Quinta Essentia, Münster 1570, p. 173 Croll, Basilica chymica 1609, S Schröder 92; Soukup, Mayer, pp. 198ff. Paracelsus, Vol. 10, pp. 362ff .; A. v. Searched, Antimonii mysterii gemina, Leipzig 1632,
16 Antimony (III) oxychloride SbOCl or Sb 4O 5Cl 2 Antimony (III) sulfide Sb 2S 3 Antimony (III, V) oxide Sb 2O 4 Antimony (V) oxide Sb 2O 5 pulverized and glowed. Alexander von Suchten let (around 1570) fizzle out the gray skewer shine with saltpeter to produce the flores. (See also vitrum antimonii under> Antimony (III) sulfide.) The first information about a mercurius vitae comes from Paracelsus, who let antimony oil act on water. (SbOCl is initially formed, which turns into Sb 4O 5Cl 2, the latter being to be understood as 2 SbOCl. Sb 2O 3.) The name Algarot (t) powder goes back to the Veronese doctor Vittorio Algarotti (), who was influenced by Paracelsus. In the 19th century the preparation was called Stibium chloratum basicum, but eventually became obsolete. Antimony (III) sulfide was used in Egypt from the 3rd millennium BC. Chr. As dark make-up. The stibnite (antimonite, gray spit gloss) was called الكحل (al-kuhl = the coloring) in the Arabic language area. Almost all authors of the 16th or early 17th century (e.g. Thurneysser or Libavius) mean the mineral antimonite when they speak of antimonium or stibium. Already in a vocabulary of the 12th century one finds a vitrum antimonii, i.e. the spit-gloss glass, which is created when the spit-gloss is heated and which is a mixture of mainly Sb 2O 3 and about% Sb 2S 3. The pharmaceutical antimony preparation of the 18th century, which was made from antimony butter and nitric acid and called Bezoardicum minerale, mainly contained antimony tetroxide. In the 17th century, antimonium diaphoreticum (perspiration-inducing lime) was obtained by deflagrating gray spit gloss with excess saltpeter, which was a valued medicinal product and is made from antimony (V) oxide and potassium antimonate KSbO 3 p. 277; Schröder p. 100ff .; Paracelsus 3, 150 Schröder, p. 93ff. H. Balzli, vocabularies in the Codex Salernitanus of the Breslau city library and in a Munich manuscript, studies on Gesch. d. Medicine, 21 (1931) Schröder 1957, p. 88; Peter Pomet, Der Aufrichtige Materialist und Specerey-Händler, Leipzig 1717, p. 740; Schneider 1962, p. 67; Christoph H. Keil, Compendioses but perfect Medicinisch-Chymisches Handbüchlein, Lotters, Augsburg 1747, p. 29f .; 16
17 existed. Schneider 1952, p. 64; Antimony oxysulphide Sb 2OS 2 Argon Ar Arsenic As arsenic (II) sulphide Realgar -As 4S 4 Arsenic (III) oxide Arsenic As 2O 3 The antimony sulphoxide was called crocus metallorum in the alchemical literature. The official name was stibium oxidum fuscum, when William Ramsay and John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, announced the discovery of a new element they named argon (from the Greek ἀργός = inert). Until 1957, the element symbol for argon was A. The name reveals a lot: The Latin arsenicum goes from the Greek to the Persian az-zarnikh, which denotes the yellow> auripigment (zar = gold). Geber latinus mentioned metallic arsenic in the Liber fornacum. (Pseudo) -Albertus Magnus described the production of arsenic by reducing arsenic with soap. Aristotle is probably referring to this striking mineral in his Historia animalium when he writes about a poison called Sandarak. The name Realgar comes from the Arabic رهج الغار, rahǧ al-ġār and means something like cave powder. Both the alchemists of late antiquity and those of the Arab era appreciate realgar and> auripigment. In 1556 Georg Agricola listed both the realgar and the auripigment as gold-bearing minerals. In 1597 Libavius used the name realgaria. Even the metallurgists of prehistoric times must have noticed the smelter smoke that precipitates in cold places and is produced when certain ores are roasted. Olympiodoros won arsenikon 17 C. Priesner, Crocus in: Priesner, Figala, Lexikon p. 100; Lord Rayleigh, W. Ramsay, "Argon, a New Constituent of the Atmosphere," Proc. Roy. Soc. 57 (1894/95); Wiki Argon () Albertus Magnus, Libellus de Alchimia, Cap. 33 (Theatrum chemicum, Strasbourg 1659, p. 441); E. Fluck, L. Gmelin, Arsen, Geschichtliches in: Gmelins Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, system no. 17, Springer-Verl, Berlin, Heidelberg 1952, p. 16ff .: isbn = Aristoteles, Historia animalium, Lib. VIII, Cap. 23; G. Agricola, De re metallica, Basel 1556, Lib. V; L. Levin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte, Springer-Verl., Berlin 1920, S Soukup 2007, p. 147ff. Wiki Arsenic ()
18 Arsenic (III) sulfide auripigment As 2S 3 arsenopyrite FeAsS Fe 3+ [AsS] 3 arsenic acid H 3AsO 4 arsenic trichloride AsCl 3 by roasting> auripigment or kobathia (> realgar) with subsequent sublimation of the white smoke. The beginning of the smelter production in the important mining area Rotgülden in Lungau took place around the middle of the 14th century. Synonyms: arsenicum album, arsenicum sublimatum; Paracelsus tried to reduce the toxicity of arsenic preparations by oxidizing them with saltpeter, which resulted in potassium arsenate. The yellow mineral auripigment was already known to the Aristotle student Theophrast under the name Arsenikon. The term sulfur without fire used by Stephanos of Alexandria in the 7th century seems to refer to auripigment. Georg Agricola described the operment Arsenopyrite occurs on the Mitterberg near Mühlbach am Hochkönig in Salzburg, where mining has been documented since the early Bronze Age. To what extent the arsenic content of the early bronze artifacts, all of which are arsenic bronzes, can be traced back to the arsenopyrite present there is an open question. Arsenopyrite was found among the minerals and ores found in the Oberstockstall laboratory from the late 16th century. In 1775, Carl Wilhelm Scheele produced arsenic acid in two ways: by dissolving arsenic acid (H 3AsO 3, which can be obtained by dissolving> arsenic in water) in chlorine water, or by directing chlorine gas into a solution of arsenic acid. Arsenic trichloride was already described by Rudolph Glauber in 1648. 18 L. Levin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte, Springer-Verl., Berlin 1920, p. 158; R. W. Soukup, nature, you heavenly! The alchemical treatises of Stephanos of Alexandria, communications from the Austrians. Ges. F. History of Natural Sciences 12 (1992) p. 6; Wiki Arsenopyrite () Soukup, Mayer 1997, p. 64; J. Giradin, Process for the preparation of arsenic acid, Dinglers Polytechnisches Journal 176 (1865) 47ff .; Ullmann, Vol. 1, 1914, p. 569;
19 Astat As Barium Ba Barium carbonate BaCO 3 Barium chloride BaCl 2 Barium chromate BaCrO 4 Numerous alleged discoveries of the eka-iodine predicted by Dmitri I. Mendeleev could not be confirmed, for example the alabamium by Fred Allison (1931), which was later named by Horia Hulubei and Yvette Cauchois (1936), the Dakin by De Rajendralal Mitra (1937), the Helvetium (1940) by Walter Minder and the Anglohelvetium (1942) by Alice Leigh-Smith and Walter Minder, respectively. An artificial production, namely by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles, reported Dale R.Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie and Emilio Segrè Berta Karlik and Traude Bernert were able to detect the element in all three natural uranium decay series. The suggestion of the two Viennese physicists to name Element 85 after their hometown Viennium was rejected. Segrè et al. called it astat after the Greek ἀστατέω = to be inconsistent. Metallic barium was first produced in the form of an amalgam in 1808 by Humphry Davy by electrolysis of a mixture of barium oxide and mercury oxide. The first pure presentation was made in 1855 by melting electrolytic by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen. Carbonic or mild barite (Carbonas barytae, Baryta carbonica, Terra ponderosa aerata) was the name given to barium carbonate by Jacquin in 1810. Joseph Franz von Jacquin also uses the names murias barytae and barytae muriatica for the salty barite. Friedrich Albert Carl Gren lists a hydrochloric heavy earth In 1796, Louis-Nicolas Vaucquelin described the production of the color pigment barite yellow (lemon yellow), which 19 D. R. Corson, K. R. MacKenzie, E. Segrè, Artificially Radioactive Element 85, Phys. Rev. 58 (1940); B. Karlik, T. Bernert, "About a radiation assigned to element 85", communications from the Institute for Radium Research 449 (1943) 103; B. Karlik, T. Bernert, "The Element 85 in Actinium Series", Die Naturwissenschaften 32 (1943) 44; B. Karlik, T. Bernert, "The element 85 in the natural decay series", Zeitschrift für Physik 123 (1944) 51 72; Andrea Kästner, Austrian contributions to the discovery of the element astatine, diploma thesis Vienna University of Technology 2001; Wiki Barium () Jacquin 1810, p. 177; Gren 1796, Vol. 4, 2nd edition, p. 35; Jacquin 1810, p. 123; Phoebe L. Hauff, Eugene E. Foord, Sam Rosenblum, Walid Hakki, "Hashemite, Ba (Cr, S) O 4,
20 contains water-insoluble barium chromate, a mineral containing barium chromate found in Jordan has been described. a new mineral from Jordan. "American Mineralogist 69 (1983); Barium Nitrate Ba (NO 3) 2 Barium Oxide BaO Barium Peroxide BaO 2 Barium Sulphate BaSO 4 Under heavy earth nitrate, Joseph Franz von Jacquin mentions the following names in 1810: nitric acid baryte, nitras barytae and Baryta nitraca became Carl Wilhelm Scheele first identified barium oxide, which he initially called new alkaline earth. Two years later, Johan Gottlieb Gahn found the same compound. In 1810, Joseph Franz von Jacquin spoke of a pure barium or heavy earth (baryta, terra ponderosa), which is not found in pure form in nature. Jacquin obtained BaO by annealing nitric acid or carbonate of barium. The name alludes to the high density of naturally occurring barium minerals: Greek βαρύς = heavy. The first peroxide was found by Alexander Humboldt in 1799 Barium peroxide produced in the course of Humboldt's attempts to decompose air from heavy earth and atmospheric oxygen Starting product for the manufacture of the Bolognese luminous stone (Lapis Solaris) described by Pierre de la Potier (Petrus Poterius) in 1622. (The alchemist Vincentio Casciorolo (Casciarolus) was the first to carry out this calcination with carbon, which resulted in barium sulfide in the year Der Stangenspath was described by Lorenz Gegentrum in 1750. 20 Pigments through the Ages: gments / indiv / overview / lemony ellow. html () Jacquin 1810, 114; Jacquin 1810, p. 189; Wiki Barium () A. v. Humboldt, Experiments on the chemical decomposition of the air circle and on some other subjects of the theory of nature, Braunschweig 1799, p. 129; P. Poterius , Pharmacopoea spagyrica nova et inaudita, Bonon 1622; AG Werner (ed.), Detailed and systematic list of the mineral cabinet of the former electoral Saxon mountain chief Karl Eugen Pabst von Ohain, vol. 1, Freiberg and Annaberg 1791, p.
21 Barium sulphide BaS Basic copper carbonate Azurite 2CuCO 3 Cu (OH) 2 Basic copper carbonate Malachite CuCO 3 Cu (OH) was discovered by the Bolognese alchemist Vincentio Casciorolo (Casciarola) while trying to make> barite with the help of carbon gold it was probably a matter of phosphorescence observed on barium sulfide. Joseph Franz von Jacquin mentions in connection with sulfur baryte (Sulfuretum barytae) the bononic phosphorus, which has the property of attracting light and shining in the dark. Jacquin also differentiates from sulphurized barite a hydrogenated sulphurous barite (barium hydrogen sulphide Ba (HS) 2) which is formed when it is dissolved in water. This hydrogenated sulfur barite develops H 2S with acids. Azurite has been known for more than 4,500 years. The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom already used the powdered mineral for wall paintings. Azurite was also found in the color pigments of the wall paintings of the Maya of Bonampak. With the Greeks the mineral was known as ὰρμένιον and with the Romans Latinized as armenium or Armenian stone. This is where the term lapis armenicus (Armenia stone) can be found in some 18th century encyclopedias. The terms mountain blue, copper blue and copper glaze come from mining. The word azur is derived from the Latin word azzurum الژورد (blue), which in turn derives from the Persian lāžward = sky blue. During an excavation in Beidha near the Dead Sea, the earliest use of malachite as a green pigment could be proven 9000 years ago. The alpine mining of the carbonatic copper ore occurring in the oxidation zone can be traced back to the Copper Age. Malachite was used by the Etruscans for soldering in goldsmith's work. Pliny ff .; Jacquin 1810, p. 250; Wiki Bolognese Luminous Stone () Wiki Azurite () G. Agricola, De re metallica, 5th book; Seilnacht Malachite () Wiki Malachite ()
22 Basic mercury sulfate HgSO 4 2 HgO Beryl Al 2Be 3 [Si 6O 18] Beryllium Be described malachite in his Naturalis historia (23.79). The name is derived from the Latin molochitis from the Greek word μαλάχη, in ancient Greek maláchē for mallow (because of the green color of the leaves). Malachite was still used for soldering in goldsmith's work in the Middle Ages. Georg Agricola assessed the occurrence of malachite in 1556 as a good sign of ore exploration. Paracelsus was the first to describe the production of the bright yellow turbith in his hospital book in 1529. Michael Toxites mentions Turbith minerale in his Onomasticon II in 1574 as a sweet precipitat made on corosif. In the house pharmacy of Emperor Rudolf II there was a Turbit minerale, which B. Balduinus had made in Prague in 1603. The mining of the beryl variety emerald can be traced back to the 13th century BC in Egypt. Trace back to BC. For the etymology see> Beryllium. The etymology of the word emerald is derived either from the Semitic loan word אזמרגד (izmargad) or from the Sanskrit word मरकत (marakata). Both words mean green. Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered a previously unknown earth that was initially named Glycine in an analysis of beryls and emeralds suggested by René Just Haüy. Martin Heinrich Klaproth preferred the name beryllium. In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently reduced beryllium chloride BeCl 2 with the help of potassium to metallic beryllium, Paul Marie Alfred Lebeau produced pure beryllium by means of a melt-flow electrolysis of sodium fluoroberyllate Na 2 (BeF 2). The element name refers to 22 Toxites, Onomasticon II, p. 486; Soukup, Chemie in Österreich, p. 205; Pavel Drábek, Martina Lisá, Medicines for Rudolph II.: Hpberlin / p10p.pdf () P. Drábek, Farmacie v rudolfinské době, in: Alchymie a Rudolf II., Arteffektum, Praha 2011, p. 699; Wiki Beryll () L.-N.Vauquelin, "De l'aiguemarine, ou Béril; et découverie d'une terre nouvelle dans cette pierre", Annales de Chimie 26 (1798); F. Wöhler, "Ueber das Beryllium und Yttrium", Annalen der Physik und Chemie 89 (1828) A. Bussy, "D'une travail qu'il a entrepris sur le glucinium",
23 Beryllium oxide BeO Bis (benzene) - chromium Dibenzolchrom bis (cyclooctatetraenyl) uran Uranocene, the Latin name beryllus for the mineral beryl, the etymology of which has something to do with the fading color, was the first time that Louis Nicolas Vauquelin produced beryllium oxide (beryl alumina) from the mineral beryl . A method for the production of beryllium oxide given by C. F. Joy in 1864 goes back to Jöns Jacob Berzelius. Bis (benzene) chrome was first produced in 1955 by Ernst Otto Fischer and Walter Hafner. Franz Hein had already produced and published compounds such as [Cr (C 6H 5-C 6H 5) 2] + in the 1920s and 1930s, but did not recognize them as sandwich compounds. Suggestions for the sandwich structure of these compounds came from Harold Zeiss and Minoru Tsutsui around 1954. The contribution made in this regard by Lars Onsager in 1954 should also be taken into account. In a later statement, Franz Hein said that he had originally thought of sandwich structures; Such a hypothesis would not have been accepted at the time. Synthesis of uranocene by Andrew Streitwieser Jr. and Ulrich Mueller-Westerhoff represented a milestone in the research of sandwich compounds of the f-elements. Journal de Chimie Medicale 4 (1828) CF Joy, Ueber die Beryllerde , J. Prakt. Chem. 92 (1864) 232; E. O. Fischer, W. Hafner, Dibenzol-chrom. About aromatic complexes of metals, Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B 10 (1955); D. Seyferth, "Bis (benzene) -chromium. 1. Franz Hein at the University of Leipzig and Harold Zeiss and Minoru Tsutsui at Yale". Organometallics 21 (2002) Helmut Werner, Landmarks in Organo-Transition Metal Chemistry: A Personal View, Springer Verl. 2008; P. 141ff .; Wiki Bis (benzene) chromium () A. Streitwieser Jr., U. Mueller-Westerhoff, Bis (cyclooctatetraenyl) uranium (uranocene). A new class of sandwich complexes that utilize atomic f orbitals, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90 (1968); Bis (cyclopentadienyl) iron ferrocene The so-called sandwich compound ferrocene was discovered by chance in 1951 by Thomas J. Kealy and Peter L. Pauson. In the same year, the same complex is without knowledge of the work of Kealy and Pauson also by Samuel A. Miller, John A. Tebboth and John F. Tremaine, however, on another 23 TJ Kealy, PL Pauson A New Type of Organo-Iron Compound, Nature 168 (1951); S. A. Miller, J. A. Tebboth, J. F. Tremaine, 114.
24 synthetic route has been obtained. Structural proposals by Geoffrey Wilkinson and Robert Burns Woodward could be confirmed in 1952 by X-ray crystal structure analysis data determined by Ernst Otto Fischer and Wolfgang Pfab. Dicyclopentadienylirone, Journal of the Chemical Society (1952); E. O. Fischer, W. Pfab, "On the crystal structure of the di-cyclopentadienyl compounds of divalent iron, cobalt and nickel", Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B 7 (1952); Bis (trimethylsilyl) methylstannylene Sn [CH (SiMe 3) 2] 2 bismuth Bi 1973 Peter J. Davidson and Michael F. Lappert prepared a stannylene complex. This stannylene dimer is present as a solid. The most likely interpretation of the name Wismut: a mutation in the Wiesen colliery near Schneeberg in the Saxon Ore Mountains (in 1453 Wismut was included in the shelf rights of the Saxon landlords and there is talk of Wismützechen. Since about 1450, letters have been cast using Bi. Paracelsus spoke from bismuth in connection with metals, which were still unknown in antiquity and considered this semi-metal as a kind of marcasite. Georg Agricola latinized the name in bisemutum. In pharmacopoeias of the 17th century, Bi is usually under the name Pierre Laszlo, R. Hoffmann, Ferrocene. An objective story or a Rashomon narrative? Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 112 (2000); Wiki Ferrocene () PJ Davidson, MF Lappert, Stabilization of metals in a low co-ordinative environment using the bis (trimethylsilyl) -methyl ligand; colored Sn II and Pb II alkyls, M [CH (SiMe 3) 2] 2, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1973, 317a; DE Goldberg, DH Harris, MF Lappert, KM Thomas, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1976, 261; Paracelsus, Sudhoff III, p. 49 Greenwood, Earnshaw. S Schröder, p. 178; 24
25 bismuth (III) oxide bismuth Bi 2O 3 bismuth (III) - hydrogen bismuth, bismuth BiH 3 lead to find Pb marcasita. The mineral bismite (occasionally equated with bismuth ocher) was described by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1753. The first chemical analysis of "Wismutocker" comes from Wilhelm August Lampadius (1801). The discovery of hydrogen bismuth (IUPAC name = bismuth) happened by chance, in 1918 by Fritz Paneth at the Vienna Radium Institute in the course of experiments on a thorium C preparation (in today's diction: bi-isotope 212). Eberhard Amberger published a synthesis from CH3BiH2 in 1961. The oldest lead artifacts were found in Çatalhöyük. They are currently dated to around 4800 BC. Dated. In the lead mines of Laurion, where lead ores (galena PbS) were mined near Thorikos in the 3rd millennium BC, toiled in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Around the slaves. Pliny distinguished in 25 W. A. Lampadius, Handbuch zur chemical analysis of mineral bodies, Freyberg 1801, p. 286; Wiki Bismit () F. Paneth, About bismuth hydrogen and polonium hydrogen, B. dt. Chem. Ges. 51 (1918); F. Paneth, E. Winternitz, On bismuth hydrogen. II. Communication. B. dt. Chem. Ges., 51 (1918); E. Amberger, Hydride des bismuth, B. dt. Chem Ges. 94 (1961) 1447; F. A. Paneth, From the early days of the Vienna Radium Institute. The representation of bismuth hydrogen, meeting report. d. Austrian Akad. D. Sciences math. Natural Class IIa 159 (1950) 49-52; W. Jerzembeck, H. Bürger, L. Constantin, L. Margulès, J. Demaison, J. Breendung, W. Thiel "Bismuthine BiH3: Fact or Fiction? High-Resolution Infrared, Millimeter-Wave, and Ab Initio Studies", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41 (2002); Wolfgang Piersig, lead - metal of antiquity, the present, with a future, a material for technology, culture, art, Grin-Verl., Annaberg-Buchholz 2011, p. 4; Priesner, lead in: Priesner,
26 of his Historia naturalis between a plumbum nigrum and a plumbum album (= tin). In Roman times lead mining was mainly carried out in the districts of Linares, Cartagena, Mazarron and Cantabria. People were busy alone in the Spanish mines. At Příbram in Bohemia, mining started on galena 753, the Harz lead mining 968. Figala, Lexicon p. 81f .; Wiki Laurion () In early alchemy, lead was on the one hand part of the mystical tetrasomy, on the other hand it was regarded as a base metal and first assigned to Osiris, then to Saturn. Lead (II) carbonate PbCO 3 Lead (II) chloride Horn lead PbCl 2 Lead (II) hydrogen arsenate PbHAsO 4 The mineral cerussite occurring near Vicenza was described in 1565 by Conrad Gessner. In the German translation of the nomenclature by Lavoisier et al, the names murias plumbi, salzsaueres Bley and Muriate de Plomb are given as synonyms for the Hornbley (plumbum corneum according to Jacquin 1810, Saturnus corneus according to Adelung 1796). In 1754, Guillaume François Rouelle counted horn lead among the neutral salts. Robert Boyle carried out experiments with lead dissolved in hydrochloric acid. In 1669 Johann Joachim Becher experimented with horn lead, table salt and Passau earth. As a naturally occurring mineral, cotunnite was first discovered in 1825 by Monticelli and Covelli on Vesuvius. The use of lead arsenate to control insects (from around 1894) is attributed to Charles Henry Fernald, an employee of the Division of Entomology at the US Department of Agriculture. J. J. Becher, Physica subterrranea, Lips 1738, pp. 204f .; G. F. Rouelle, Mem. Acad. 1754; Louis Bernhard Guyton de Morveau, Claude Louis Berthollet, Anton Lorenz Lavoisier, Hassenfratz, Adet, Anton Franz de Fourcroy (German translation by Karl von Meidinger), Method of chemical nomenclature for the anti-inflammatory system, Wappler, Vienna 1793, p. 234; Wiki Cotunnit () Ch. H. Fernald, Insecticides of the Horn Fly, Bulletin 24 Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 1894, p. 6; Wiki lead hydrogen arsenate () 26
27 lead (II) molybdate PbMoO 4 lead (II) oxide black lead PbO lead (II, IV) oxide red lead Pb 2 [PbO 4] The ocher-yellow Carinthian bleyspat, later named wulfenite after Franz Xaver Freiherrn von Wulfen, could be mentioned for the first time one can find in Johann Anton Scopolis introduction to the knowledge of the fossils 1769. In 1772 Ignaz von Born listed this mineral as plumbum spatosum flavorubrum pellucidum. Von Wulfen dedicated his own monograph to him. The suggestion for the name Wulfenit goes back to Wilhelm von Haidinger (1841). The black lead (silver smoothness) that occurs during the driving process of so-called silver ores was called aphroselenon (foamed silver) by Zosimos of Panapolis, and either burnt lead or spuma argentis by Pliny. Another name is lithargyrum. Both red lithargite (-PbO) and yellow massicot (-PbO) were found in the remains of Roman wall frescoes. With regard to the lead colors used in painting from the 15th to the 17th century, Richard Jacobi was able to prove that these are usually> lead tin yellow and not - as originally assumed - massicot. In Johann Kunckel's Ars vitraria from 1679 there are references to the use of Bley ash or Glett for the production of pottery glazes. Dioscurides mentions the discovery of red lead in a fire in the port of Athens, during which barrels with> white lead burned. The pigment, called minio in Latin, has been used in painters' paints since ancient times. The first factory production of minium took place in Venice in the 16th century. In the alchemical literature one can find the name crocus saturni. J. A. Scopoli, Introduction to Knowledge of Fossils, Riga and Mietau 1769, p. 157; I. von Born, Index fossilium, quae collegit et in Classes ac Ordines disposuit (Lithophylacium Bornianum) Gerle, Prague 1772/1775, pp. 152, 157; F.von Wulfen, Abhandlung vom Kärnthnerischen Bleyspate, Krauss, Vienna 1785, p. 10ff. Gábor Papp, Ignaz von Born and the Carinthian Bleispat, Carinthia II, 103 (1993) 95ff. J. Kunckel, Ars vitraria, Frankfurt 1679, p. 53ff. R. Jacobi, "On the dye used in painting by the Old Masters", Angew. Chemie 54 (1941) 28f .; Monika Kriens, Roland Wessicken, pigment analysis of Roman wall paintings from Vindonissa, annual report / Gesellschaft Pro Vindonissa 1981, p. 58: pid = gpv-001: 1981: - :: 66 () Material archive: erialarchiv.ch/apptablet/#detail/944/ red lead () Wiki red lead () 27
28 Lead (IV) chloride PbCl 4 Lead (IV) oxide PbO 2 Lead acetate Lead sugar Pb (CH3COO) .3 H2O The first person who dealt with lead superchloride seems to have been E. Millon in 1842 J. Nikoljukin succeeded in lead tetrachloride to be brought into a weighable form as a double salt. Lead tetrachloride was finally produced in 1889 (or 1893) by H. Friedrich in Graz. It is said that the formation of lead superoxide (lead peroxide), which is known as platnertite e.g. occurs in Scotland, having been observed as early as 1780, it was examined more closely by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin. An early mention of a peroxide de plomb can also be found in Thomson's Systéme de Chimie 1818. As part of his book Leçons de chimie appliquée à la teinture, Michel Eugène Chevreul was the first to deal in detail with the peroxide de plomb, i.e. the brown PbO 2, in 1829. Chevreul determined the sum formula and gave information about the production from> red lead Wilhelm Josef Sinsteden developed the first lead accumulator based on a lead (IV) oxide coating on one of the lead plates. (Studies on the electromotive behavior of lead superoxide had already been published by PS Munck af Rosenschöld in 1835.) August Breithaupt first reported in 1837 on a mineral, heavy lead ore, which Wilhelm Haidinger named after Karl Friedrich Plattner Plattnerit in 1845 and which was -PbO 2 turned out. -PbO 2 was only described as a mineral called scrutinyite in 1988, whereby a synthetically produced -PbO 2 has been known since 1941. It is a matter of dispute whether Dioscurides has already given a regulation for the production of lead acetate. Paracelsus spoke of a quinta essentia plumbi, but left no prescription. According to Andreas Libavius, it is to be understood as Saccharum Saturni. Libavius gives a prescription by Johannes Winter von Andernach: Calx saturni (Blkeiweiss) is dissolved in vinegar, filtered and H. Friedrich, Über Bleitetrachlorid, B. dt. Chem. Ges. 26 (1893); Th. Thomson, Systéme de Chimie, Paris 1818, p. 254; M. E. Chevreul, Leçons de chimie appliquée à la teinture, Vol. 1, Pichon et Didier, Paris 1829, pp. 17ff. F. A. Breithaupt, determination of new minerals: 5. Heavy lead ore, shorter Schwerbleierz, J. Pract. Chem. 1 (1937) 508; Ullmann, Vol. 2, 1915, p. 713; Wiki Lead dioxid () J. Berendes, Des Pedanios Dioskurides from Anazarbos Medicinal Science, Enke, Stuttgart 1902, p. 525; Libavius, Alchemia 1597, p. 264; 28
29 Lead azide Pb (N 3) 2 lead chromate PbCrO 4 lead sulfide galena PbS tetraethyl lead see> tetraethyl lead white lead basic lead carbonate (PbCO 3) 2 Pb (OH) 2 tin yellow type I: lead (II) - evaporated. Lead azide was first presented by Theodor Curtius in 1891. It was patented by Lothar Wöhler in 1907 as the initiator. Lead (II) chromate was discovered by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin in Paris. The possibility of using this chromate as a color pigment was recognized by Vauquelin and Claude Louis Berthollet in 1804 (Parisian yellow or chrome yellow). From 1818 this problematic pigment (darkening due to the reduction of Cr (IV) to Cr (III) and toxicity) was actually used as a painter's paint. Vincent Van Gogh used chrome yellow almost excessively. Silver-bearing galena was the starting material for silver extraction in the ancient Laurion mine as early as the 3rd millennium BC. The Latin name Galena for the mineral galena goes back to Pliny the Elder. Ä. back. The name gloss for this lead ore has been documented since the 16th century. Abraham Gottlob Werner coined the term lead gloss in the late 18th century. In 1810, Joseph Franz von Jacquin called an artificial Bley gloss as sulphurized Bley or Galena plumbi arificialis or sulfuretum plumbi. Cerussa was already known in ancient times. The white pigment is mentioned by Theophrastus in the 4th century BC. BC, by Pliny Secundus and Dioscurides in the 1st century. It was made from lead through the action of air and vinegar (steaming). Tin-lead yellow, which was called giallorino, was used as a pigment in painting from approx. To 1750 AD, but also for 29 Th. Curtius, Neues vom nitrogen hydrogen, B. dt. Chem. Ges. 24 (1891) 3345; Wiki lead azide () Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall, Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary of Historical Pigments, Elsevier, Oxford etc. 2004, p. 99; Thomas Kramar, How Van Gogh's Chrome Yellow Turns Brown. Die Presse, print edition,; Pliny 33, 6; Jacquin 1810, p. 380; H. Moesta, P.R. Franke, Ancient Metallurgy and Coin Minting: A Contribution to the History of Technology, Springer Verl. 2013, p. 59f .; Wiki lead white () R. Jacobi, "About the dye used in painting by the Old Masters", Angew.
30 stannate Pb 2SnO 4 type II: lead tin silicate PbSn 2SiO 7 boron B boracite (Mg, Fe) 3 [Cl B7O13] borane production of white overlay glazes in ceramics or glass production, in use, whereby for early frescos a lead tin yellow of type II was used Use came. In painting, until it was replaced by Naples yellow in the 18th century, type II lead-tin yellow was the standard pigment for yellow. In his report to the Kgl. Academy d. Science, the doctor and chemist Theodor Baron expressed himself in 1748 that borax and boric acid must be based on a previously unknown substance. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard established elemental boron by reducing boron trioxide with potassium. Independently of this, and a little later, Sir Humphry Davy produced boron by electrolysis of boric acid, and Jöns Jakob Berzelius recognized the elementary character of the substance. One of the components of boracite, first described in 1787 by Georg Sigismund Otto Lasius as cubic quartz crystals from Lüneburg and named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, was specified by Joseph Franz von Jacquin as boraxic acid talc earth (Boras magnesiae, Magnesia boriatica) i.e. magnesium borate. The boracite was also called the Lüneburg diamond. The first gaseous substance to be described as the hydride of boron was reported by Francis Jones and R. L. Taylor in 1881. BH 3 30 Chemie 54 (1941) 28f .; Hermann Kühn, "Lead-tin-yellow and its use in painting", Farbe und Lack 73 (1967); Wiki Beizinngelb () J. Ch. Adelung, continuation of the Allgemeine Gelehrten- Lexicon, Leipzig 1784, vol. 1, column 1444; J.L. Gay-Lussac, L.J. Thénard, "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique", Annales de chimie 68 (1808); H. Davy, "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulfur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory", Phil. Trans. Roy . Soc. 99 (1809); Wiki Bor () G. S. O. Lasius, Observations over the Harz Mountains, together with a profile crack, as a contribution to mineralogical natural history, Vol. 1, Hanover 1789, p. 221; Jacquin 1810, pp. 205f .; Wiki Boracit () F. Jones, R. L. Taylor, On boron hydride, J. Chem. Soc., Trans., 1881,39,
31 suggested. Alfred Stock, who was intensively involved in borane chemistry from 1912, showed that the gas produced when magnesium diboride reacts with hydrochloric acid is a mixture of B 4H 10 and B 6H 12. The B 6H 12 described by Stock later turned out to be a mixture of B 4H 10, B 5H 9 and B 6H 10. In 1933, Stock proposed a structure analogous to ethane for the gaseous hydrogen boride (diborane B 2H 6). H. Christopher Longuet-Higgins introduced the concept of the three-center two-electron bond in the 1940s, whereby it should be remembered that Walter Dilthey in Erlangen had already made such a proposal in 1921. DF Gaines and R. Schaeffer synthesized pure B 6H 12 . William N. Lipscom received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1976 for his research into the stereochemical structure and the theoretical explanation of the bonding in boranes. Lipscom's research group used formulas from Edmiston, Ruedenberg, and Boys in the MO calculation of the localized 3Z- 2e - bonds in 1974. A. Stock: The Hydrides of Boron and Silicon. Cornell University Press, New York 1933; W. Dilthey, "On the Constitution of Water", Angewandte Chemie 34 (1921) 596; H.C. Longuet-Higgins, R.P. Bell: The structure of the boron hydrides, Journal of the Chemical Society 1943,; Eberhardt, W. H .; Crawford, B .; Lipscomb, W. N. (1954). "The Valence Structure of the Boron Hydrides". J. Chem. Phys. 22 (6): 989; D. A. Kleier, J. H. Hall, Jr .; Halgren, T. A., Lipscomb W. N., "Localized Molecular Orbitals for Polyatomic Molecules. I. A Comparison of the Edmiston-Ruedenberg and the Boys Localization Methods," J. Chem. Phys. 61 (1974) 3905; Boron Carbide B 4C Boron Nitride BN The first boron carbide was made in 1883 by Alexandre Joly. In 1899, Henri Moissan determined the Formula B 6C for this unusually hard boron carbide. In 1930/34, Raymond Ronald Ridgway proposed the empirical formula B 4C that is in use today. Two different boron-nitrogen compounds BN were described by Wilhelm H. Balmain in 1843. One of them was named Aethogen. Friedrich Wöhler determined the composition in 1850. Borazon (the cubic form of boron nitride 31 Wiki William Lipscom () A. Joly, Sur le bore, Compt. Rend. 97 (1883), especially 458; RR Ridgway, "Boron carbide and method of making the same", US A: filed: May 14, 1930, published: February 14, 1933; WH Balmain, Pharmac. Central-Blatt f. 1843, pp. 244, 731ff .; WH Balmain, Lond., About the Aethogen and the Aethonide,
32 cbn) was first manufactured in 1957 by Robert H. Wentorf Jr. See also> magnesium nitride. Edinb., Dubl. phil. Mag. 1843, 467ff .; 1844, 191ff .; F. Wöhler, Ann Chem. Pharm. 74 (1850) 70; Boric acid H 3BO 3 bromine Br 2 bromine chloride BrCl bromine trifluoride BrF Wilhelm Homberg for the first time gave a specification for the production of boric acid from> borax by the action of acid. (He added iron vitriol to borax and heated it.) The boric acid was initially called sal volatile vitrioli narcoticum, subsequently sal sedativum Hombergi, or in the 19th century also Acidum boricum. Bromine was obtained in 1826 by Antoine-Jérôme Balard from seaweed in the salt marshes near Montpellier, who recognized it as an element. Carl Jacob Löwig published the first comprehensive monograph on bromine and its compounds that became known shortly afterwards.The first proof of the interhalogen compound bromine chloride by comparing vapor pressure curves and isolating the pure compound by means of slow distillation of a chlorine-bromine mixture at 70 C was achieved by Hermann Lux bromine trifluoride was first produced in 1906 by Paul Lebeau. R. H. Wentorf Jr., "Cubic Form of Boron Nitride", J. Chem. Phys. 26 (1957) 956; W. Homberg, Essais de chimie, Mémoires de l academie royale de sciences de Paris 1702; W. Homberg, Crell s chem. Archive 2, 265; A. Balard, "Memoir on a peculiar Substance contained in Sea Water", Annals of Philosophy 28 (1826); C. J. Löwig, Das Brom und seinechemüche, Heidelberg 1829: id = ugfqaaaacaaj & pg = pp5 & r edir_esc = y # v = onepage & q & f = fa lse () Wiki Brom () H. Lux, Zur Wissen des Bromchlorids, Chem. Ber. 63 (1930); P. Lebeau, "The effect of fluorine on chloride and on bromine," Ann. Chim. Phys. 9 (1906); Hydrogen bromide A compound of hydrogen according to the A. J. Balard, Ann. Chim
33 HBr Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca Calcium acetate Ca (CH 3COO) 2 Calcium carbide CaC 2 Brom was already observed by the discoverer of bromine Antoine Jérome Balard Balard also produced hydrogen bromide from phosphorus, potassium bromide, bromine and water. In 1886, Jean Servais Stas gave precise information on the production of a concentrated hydrobromic acid. Friedrich Stromeyer and Carl Samuel Hermann discovered cadmium in contaminated zinc carbonate independently of one another. Stromeyer was also able to get the corresponding metal. The name cadmium was used for zinc and zinc ores in the Middle Ages. It goes back to the Greek καδμεία, which names a mineral named after Κάδμος, the founder of Thebes, Humphry Davy succeeded in electrolytically obtaining metallic calcium on a platinum sheet as an anode and a platinum wire as a cathode from moistened quicklime with the help of mercury oxide. It is possible that the tinctura corallinorum of Paracelsus was already a calcium acetate solution (or a calcium chloride solution). Oswald Croll described the sal corallorum obtained with the help of vinegar in his Basilica Chymica. Humphry Davy probably already had CaC in his hands when, while attempting to electrolytically produce calcium, he found a melt of Ca and C which, together with water, develops a foul-smelling gas. Friedrich Wöhler described an electricity-free carbide representation in 1863; Wöhler fused a zinc-calcium alloy with coal. Thomas L. Willson, director of Willson Aluminum Co in North Carolina, wrote to Lord Kelvin on September 16, 1892, that he had tried 33 (1826) 348f .; J. S. Stas, For the production of hydrobromic acid, Z. anal. Chem. 25 (1886) 213ff .; Letter from F. Stromeyer in: C. S. Hermann, "Another writing about the new metal", Annalen der Physik 59 (1818); Wiki Cadmium () H. Davy, "Electro-chemical researches on the decomposition of the earths; with observations on the metals obtained from the alkaline earths, and on the amalgam procured from ammonia", Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 98 (1808); Croll, Basilica chymica 1622, p. 157; F. Wöhler, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 125 (1863) 120; Th. L. Willson, Electric reduction of refractory metallic compounds, US A, Feb. 21, 1893; H. Moissan, Compt. Rend. 117 (1893) 679; H. Moissan, Compt. Rend. 118
34 Calcium carbonate CaCO 3 electrolytic calcium production a gray mass is obtained, which with water results in acetylene. Willson applied for a patent for his invention in 1892 and received US patent A on February 21. Henry Moissan spoke on December 12, 1892 at a meeting of the French Academy about the production of calcium carbide in the electric furnace at C. Moissan published his results in 1893 and Die The oldest evidence of the processing of lime by burning (which produces> calcium oxide), extinguishing (> calcium hydroxide) and setting come from the mountain temple of Göbekli Tepe in Anatolia; they are years old. The first to understand the processes involved in lime burning in 1754 was Joseph Black, who spoke of the resulting> carbon dioxide as fixed air. In 1769, Nicolaus Jacquin confirmed Black's results when Joseph Franz von Jacquin called the common limestone carbonic, mild or airy lime (Lapis calcareus, Carbonas calcis, Calcaria carbonica) in order to distinguish it from the caustic lime, which when it occurs in nature, Calx pura , or Calcaria pura, and living lime (Calx viva), if it was produced in the lime kiln. He also calls the slaked lime, which he characterizes as hydrated lime, Calx extincta. On the basis of his work carried out between 1811 and 1813, Friedrich Stromeyer identified not only calcite but also aragonite as a form of calcium carbonate. The name aragonite goes back to the chemically incorrect name given to arragonian apatite by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1788. In the same year Heinrich Klaproth showed that the mineral does not contain phosphorus. Werner called the mineral Aragonian calcite, later aragonite. He was 34 (1894) 591; Erasmus Bartholin, Experimenta crystalli islandici disdiaclastici quibus mira et insolita refractio detegitur, Hafniae 1669; Joseph Black, Experiments upon Magnesia Alba, Quick-Lime, and some other Alkaline Substances, Edinburgh, 1756; Nicolaus Joseph Jacquin, Examen chemicum, Kraus, Vienna 1769; William Pryce, Mineralogia Cornubiensis, London 1778; René-Just Haüy, "Memoire sur la structure des crystaux", Obs. sur la Phys., 19, 1782, p; Abraham Gottlob Werner, Brief Message from the so-called Arragonian Apatites, Bergmännisches Journal 1 (1788) 95; Jacquin 1810, 137 and 175f .; Wiki Lime Kiln () Wiki Calcite (): alcit Stefan Schorn, Mineralien-
35 Calcium chlorate Ca (ClO 3) 2 Calcium chloride CaCl 2. 6 H 2O Calcium cyanamide Calcium cyanamide CaNCN Opinion that the location Molina de Aragon (in Castile) belongs to Aragon. Incidentally, as early as 1754 Joseph Torrubia had indicated the occurrence of the conspicuous crystals near Molina de Aragon on the Rio Gallo. William Pryce described as early as 1778 that all forms of calcite result from simple cleavage from the basic form of the rhombohedron. René-Just Haüy formulated the basic laws of crystallography in 1781, using the example of calcite. Erasmus Bartholin described the birefringence property of calcite (double spar) as early as 1669. In 1810, Joseph Franz von Jacquin described the production of hyperoxygenated hydrochloric acid lime (Murias hyperoxygenatus calcis) by introducing oxygenated hydrochloric acid gas (Cl 2) into milk of lime (Ca (OH) 2). Joseph Franz von Jacquin mentions the hydrochloric acid lime in 1810 under the name of Glauber's fixer salmiak (Sal ammoniacus fixus Glauberi, Calcaria muriatica, Murias calcis), thus reminding of the reaction product of the reaction of salmiak with living (CaO) or mild lime mentioned by Rudolph Glauber (Ca (OH) 2. He mentions that earlier CaCl 2 was called lime oil (Oleum calcis) that dissolved in the air. Calcium cyanamide was first prepared by Georg Meyer in 1878 when this glowed residues from the urea sulphide with powdered CaO.In the spring of 1898, Fritz Rothe succeeded in providing evidence that the action of pure nitrogen on carbides of the alkaline earths cyanamide NCN 2- is formed. Rothe tried to patent his discovery, but had to cede the invention to Adolphe Frank as a result of an employment contract, which resulted in several Frank Caro patents. A historical mineral with the wrong type locality, mineral atlas: e / lexikon / index.php / mineralien portrait / aragonit / a% 20histori cal% 20mineral% 20with% 20de r% 20false% 20typelocalite% e4 t () Jacquin 1810, p. 140; Jacquin 1810, 125f. G. Meyer, "About the action of carbonic acid on some cyamides", J. Prakt. Chem. N.F. 18 (1878) 425; A. Frank, N. Caro, German Imperial Patents,,; 35
36 Calcium fluoride fluorspar, fluorite CaF 2 calcium hydride CaH 2 Ca (HCO 3) 2 Ca (HS) 2 calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 Ca (OH) 2 aq calcium hydrogen carbonate calcium hydrogen sulfide calcium hypochlorite Ca (OCl) 2. Georg Agricola first described fluorspar in 1530 in his Dialogue Bermannus. Heinrich Schwankhardt etched glass in 1670 with fluorspar and vitriol oil. In 1771, Carl Wilhelm Scheele recognized fluorspar as a compound of lime and a still unknown acid, which he produced as fluorosilicate gas. Friedrich Mohs discovered the fluorescence of fluorite that becomes visible in ultraviolet light. (George Gabriel Stokes named this phenomenon of fluorescence after the fluorite - in analogy to the opalescence of opal.) In 1891 Clemens Winkler observed the formation of calcium hydride for the first time when CaO and Mg powder were annealed in a hydrogen atmosphere. From the elements, the CaH 2 was first presented by Béla von Lengyel in 1895. In 1810 Joseph Franz von Jacquin called the mild lime dissolved in carbonated water as acidic carbonate of lime (Carbonas acidulus calcis). Jacquin reports that when sulphurized lime (CaS) is dissolved, hydrogenated sulphurized lime (Sulfuretum hydrogenatum calcis) is obtained. Slaked lime = Calx extincta = hydrated lime. The dissolution in water is the lime water (= Aqua calcis). The skin of CaCO 3 visible on the surface was called by Jacquin Kalkrahm (Cremor calcis). The chlorinated lime, which is a mixture of approx. 35% calcium hypochlorite, calcium chloride and calcium hydroxide, was first found in 1795 by Pal Kitaibel Chlorkalk G. Agricola, Bermannus, sive de re metallica dialogus, 1530; Ullmann, Vol. 5, 1917, p. 567; Cl. Winkler, On the Reduction of Oxygen Compounds by Magnesium, B. dt. Chem. Ges. 24 (1891); B. v. Lengyel, Math. Naturwiss. Ber. Hungary 14 (1895/96); Jacquin 1810, p. 177; Jacquin 1810, p.247ff .; Jacquin 1810, 187; Ch. Tennant, Engl. Patent 2209 () W. Müller Pal Kitaibel in: 36
37 manufactured by Charles Tennant. Poetsch. Lexikon 1989, p. 237; Wiki Chlorinated lime () Calcium nitrate Ca (NO 3) 2 or Ca (NO 3) 2.4 H 2O Calcium oxide CaO Calcium phosphate Ca 3 (PO 4) 2 Even in the 16th century it was not always clear between the saltpetre KNO 3 and the masonry nitrate Ca ( NO 3) 2 differentiated. This is how Andreas Libavius called both salts sal nitri in 1597. In 1612, Martin Ruland described the substance aphronitrum as a saltpeter that grows on the moors and rocks. In 1673/74 Christoph Adolf Balduin published the description of the fluorescence of the calcium nitrate residue after adding nitric acid to lime chalk and then evaporating it. Therefore, strictly speaking, the name Phosphorus Balduini is the first really tangible name for anhydrous calcium nitrate. The oraculum, published anonymously in 1755, only referred to the Moor or cellar nitrate as sal petrae, while potassium nitrate is listed under nitrum commune. Joseph Franz von Jacquin names 1810 as synonymous names for the calcium nitrum nitrum calcareum vel terrestre, Nitras calcis and Calcaria nitrica. He also mentions Balduin's phosphorus under the same heading. Caustic lime = living lime = Calx viva; If this occurs in nature, it is called Calx pura or Calcinaria pura. The cause of the exothermicity of lime slaking was one of the great mysteries of antiquity and early modern times: Seneca d. J., Vitruv as well as Julius Caesar Scaliger and Gerolamo Cardano in the 16th century. put forward various theories. Friedrich Albert Carl Gren already mentions a phosphoric acid calcareous earth including the Latin name phosphas calcis. A comprehensive work on calcium phosphate, namely how this phosphate in particular as bone apatite in 37 Libavius, Alchemia 1597, 377; Ruland, Lexicon 1612, 45; C. A. Balduin, Phosphorus Hermetis sive Magnes luminaris, negotiations of the Leopoldina 1673/74. Oraculum 1755 Jacquin 1810, 113f. Jacquin 1810, 185; Wiki Calcium Hydroxide () F. A. C. Gren, Phosphat de chaux, Systematisches Handbuch der Gesamt Chemie, 2nd edition, Vol. 4, p, 39; A. F. de Fourcroy, L.-N. Vau-
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