How is product design

Product design

creative, user-oriented design of the sensually perceptible exterior of a product as part of the - + product policy. In addition to the process of design, the term product design also describes its result, the external shape of the product. The design elements are primarily material, shape, color and symbols, which have to be combined into a self-contained concept that is tailored to the customer's living environment. This task is guided by a multitude of goals that are often difficult to reconcile. First of all, the technical suitability of a product, e.g. B. to ensure or improve its fit, easy and safe handling, transportability and storability or ergonomic functionality. Furthermore, the design can convey aesthetic enjoyment, social recognition and emotional product experiences (e.g. modernity, comfort, etc.), i.e. create an additional benefit that is of great importance for the market success of the product, especially in technically mature product categories. Thirdly, a distinctive, continuous design that is characterized by certain stylistic features across the range and over time supports the marking of the product and the identification of certain consumers with the product. Fourthly, this makes product design an important profiling element vis-à-vis competing providers. On the other hand, however, these goals are i. d. Usually production or material-related, cost-effective, legal (e.g. utility model protection rights of competitors) and also ecological (e.g. noise development, energy consumption) restrictions that add to the tension of the design-political target system. In addition, the design requirements of the customers often differ considerably, so that target group-specific solutions have to be sought. Literature: \ 'Wieselhuber, N., conception and realization of product design in the consumer goods industry, Berlin 1981.

Systematic design of products, product elements or packs with strong aesthetic references. This can be understood as a holistic design or design of all quality components of a product. Design has a practical dimension as an ergonomic design that facilitates usability, an aesthetic dimension as a perception-related individual impression and a symbolic dimension as communication ability (social impression). Different design directions can be distinguished, e.g. aesthetic functionalism, technicalism, demonstrative aestheticism, luxury design. Design concerns the development of new (innovation design) and the optimization of existing (re-design), industrially manufactured or to be manufactured products / product systems for the physical and psychological needs of the user on the basis of aesthetic, economic and ergonomic analyzes with the help of form, Color, material and characters. The aesthetics of products is an important differentiating factor in the context of lifestyle society and expresses one's own cultural demands on the environment. It should achieve the efficient design of effort and benefit. See also product policy (with references).

will i. d. Usually interpreted normatively as a positive quality characteristic, which is attached to criteria such as the degree of innovation or particularly carefully designed functional and formal product characteristics. The object area of ​​product design has so far not been defined uniformly in the literature. A distinction can be made between more marketing-oriented and more industrial design-based terms. While product design is subordinated to product design as an additive quality component alongside other design elements in marketing, industrial design is more likely to assume that product design and product design are in the same order. Design is understood as the holistic shaping or design of all quality components of a product. These express themselves not only in the external design, but also in the structural and functional relationships to other products of the manufacturer and the user and i. w.S. also to the culture of a society. The functions of product design are very complex and have had different meanings in terms of corporate policy in the course of historical development. With industrialization v. a. In the production of consumer goods, the company initially had to design products suitable for production (production-economic function). Against this background, the claim of aesthetic functionalism to a cost-effective supply of mass markets with aesthetically sophisticated products arose. The task of product design was primarily to ensure the best possible functionality of the products, which deliberately renounced everything superfluous and thus inefficient. With the saturation of the markets, there was then a shift in product design from production to sales orientation. While design was initially discussed primarily under the aspect of cost reduction and then as an additional aesthetic benefit in the context of a withdrawal strategy as a competitive advantage in existing markets, today more and more new markets or market niches emerge only through design (sales economic function). Advances in production technology, through which the number of units for economical series production were drastically reduced, and a high willingness to pay on the part of customers are among the most important requirements for this development. On an institutional level, design management should take account of the resulting need for close networking of design, marketing, construction and production. As part of corporate management, product design is increasingly developing into a central basis for market-oriented strategies and a foundation for economic, technical and social innovations. Its effect as a competitive factor is closely related to the differentiation and refinement of the aesthetic and socio-cultural needs of consumers. With increasing prosperity, the satisfaction of elementary needs is complete in many areas, and the desire for social recognition and self-fulfillment grows. The largely satisfied functional, use-related aspects of a product are becoming less important. At the same time, the communicative effect of the product policy comes to the fore (experience marketing). In this sense, the product design no longer only shapes the function of a product, but the function itself is interpreted through the design (anthropological effect). Product design offers the consumer an opportunity to identify with certain aesthetic value judgments made by a designer or company and to use them to express their own lifestyle (psychological effect). As a result, a concise product design finds its way into social debates about the social recognition of certain taste norms and the legitimacy of a certain lifestyle (sociological effect). With the social debate and the self-assertion of consumers, there is an automatic connection between domination and change in aesthetic norms, which increasingly subordinates design to the laws of fashion (e.g. Memphis) and hinders the creation of a uniform style. At the same time, this development exacerbates the problem of psychological obsolescence and motivates an examination of the social responsibility of companies and designers in dealing with resources and the disposability of obsolete products. Therefore, in addition to the attraction and the conciseness of product design, questions of ecology are increasingly in the foreground of product design (ecological marketing). When designing the product, a distinction can be made between production-related and sales-oriented aspects. In terms of production technology, the design should be adapted to the production conditions of a company. By using Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE), design and production preparation can be coordinated at a very early stage. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems have increased the scope for design, because they allow individual products to be offered economically to relatively small target groups. Depending on the paragraph, a distinction can be made between a more usage-related and a more perception-related design level, which can only be separated from one another analytically. The use-related design is closely linked to the functionality of the product. From this perspective, the design of the functional functions and ergonomics are of great importance. On the other hand, the design of the networkability of the products has a rather restrictive effect, in that, in addition to the product to be designed, the context in which the product forms a unit with other products to satisfy a set of needs is also taken into account. Networkability should by no means be seen solely from a technical point of view, but should also include the aesthetic and symbolic dimension on the perception-related level. As part of the aesthetic design, the transformation and interpretation of aesthetic value judgments by consumers into target group-specific product design is carried out by the designer and the company against the background of their own values. With the symbolic design, the value within the symbolic system of a society is determined by recourse to at least the target group shared or the creation of new contexts of meaning. The perception-related effect of the product is primarily based on the information content that can be derived from the external design of the product and thus from the design elements. Both material and immaterial design elements come into question as design parameters of the product design. Examples of the material design elements are the product size, the material, the surface texture, the color, the ornament and the characters. In the broadest sense, this also includes standardized components and semi-finished products. The intangible design elements include, above all, product category-related and stylistic elements of aesthetic rhetoric. Literature -.Hansen, U.; Leitberer, E., Product Policy, 2nd Ed., Stuttgart J 984. Kicherer, S., Industrial Design as a Performance Area of ​​Companies, Munich 1987. Koppelmann, U., Product Marketing, Stuttgart 1989. Löbach, B., Product Design, Stuttgart 1981.

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