How is gasoline transported in a pipeline
Crude oil: transportation, storage and processing
Crude oil is imported into Germany via cross-border crude oil pipelines and via the ports of Wilhelmshaven, Brunsbüttel, Hamburg and Rostock. Pipelines lead from the ports of Wilhelmshaven, Brunsbüttel and Rostock to one or more refineries. The pipeline infrastructure is owned by the mineral oil processing industry; it is mostly operated by joint ventures between several oil companies.
The storage of crude oil, intermediate and finished products takes place both underground in caverns and above ground in refineries and numerous refinery-independent tank farms. The total tank storage capacity in Germany is around 62 million cubic meters, 40 percent of which are caverns (as of December 31, 2015). About a third of the above-ground storage capacity is operated by companies that are not dependent on the refinery. A significant part of the total capacity is used by the Petroleum Storage Association for the storage of stocks of petroleum and petroleum products for crisis prevention. (Infographic PDF: 1.2 MB)
Mineral oil processing takes place in Germany in 13 refineries with a total crude oil distillation capacity of 102.1 million tons. With a gross refinery production of 106.5 million tons, Germany is the largest refinery location in the EU. According to the Federal Statistical Office, 16,967 people were directly employed in mineral oil processing in Germany in 2015.
Most of the refineries are owned by internationally active foreign energy companies.
In addition to processing the mostly imported crude oil into petroleum products, finished products are also traded internationally. In 2016, 37.7 million tons were imported into Germany and 22 million tons were exported. A significant proportion of this international trade is carried out by energy traders who do not have their own processing capacities. Trade also serves to balance out the differences between the structure of consumption and production in petroleum products. More petrol and petrol components are exported than imported, while the foreign trade balance for so-called middle distillates (diesel, light heating oil and components) is negative.
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