Julie Andrews lost her voice permanently

Queer diva. For the staging of the star concept Liza Minnelli

Table of Contents

1 Introduction: A beloved American musical theater icon

2 Who or what is a star? Approaching a definition

3 The star image - another approximation

4 Historical development of the role of the Hollywood star

5 Making a movie star

6 Genesis of the star body Liza Minnelli
6.1 Media origin
6.2 Professional basis in the theater to introduce the media person
6.3 Formation of a first image
6.4 Manifestation and climax of the star body
6.4.1 Cabaret as a catalyst
6.4.2 Cinematic reinterpretation of the theater role Sally Bowles as a constant play with role models and their aftermath
6.4.3 Creation of a film icon: The film character “Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles” in a film still

7 Image
7.1 In the film
7.2 On TV

8 persona

9 diva? The gay icon

10 star concept

11 Conclusion: The film star in the theater as a physical contradiction

12 Bibliography and sources
12.1 Secondary literature
12.2 Internet sources
12.3 Image Sources

13 Appendix: Suggestion of a diagram for the star concept

1 Introduction: A beloved American musical theater icon

It is commonly said that stars are stars because they are extraordinary, talented and wonderful.1 The philosopher and sociologist Ian Jarvie defines stars by their talent, i. H. her strikingly photogenic appearance, her acting ability, her camera presence, her charm, her personality, her sex appeal, her attractive voice and her meaning.2 From a film or theater studies point of view, this characterization is insufficient, but it gives us valuable information. The roles and / or the performative act of a star in a film were assumed to be revealing with regard to his personality, which until then could be substantiated in other media. Such a personality was a construction that was expressed and memorized through films, reports, and advertisements.3

The American actress and singer Liza Minnelli was a leading Hollywood star for a short time. Her star body manifested itself in the film in 1972 Cabaretbecause it coincided with her role as Sally Bowles: The result was the film character "Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles", which is so dominant that it has spoiled the theater role of Sally Bowles, according to the culture journalist Tyler Coates, for all subsequent actresses.4 There is a very specific sequence, even a specific film style, which can be used to understand this manifestation.

Although Minnelli's film career is long over, it is worth looking at her star figure because of its importance in theater history. In 2009 Minnelli received a special award from the Drama Desk organization as a “beloved American musical theater icon”.5 Tied to a famous name, a well-known biographical background and a specific media origin, the star Liza Minnelli practiced and continues to practice for decades Cabaret a great attraction to the theater. Broadway producers used the name Liza Minnelli several times to save a production. In the summer of 1975, Minnelli jumped for six weeks for the sick Gwen Verdon as Roxie Hart in the premiere of the musical Chicago and thus raised the public's interest - Chicago then ran for two more years.6 In 1978 the critically panned, but always sold-out musical became The Act only withdrawn because after almost ten months Minnelli had decided against a contract extension in favor of a concert tour.7 When they ceased production in July 1984 The rink left, ticket sales collapsed - her co-star, Chita Rivera, couldn't keep the audience's interest stable on her own.8 In January 1997, Minnelli replaced the sick Julie Andrews in the title role of Victor / Victoria and made the musical the most commercially successful production of the month despite mixed reviews for its own performance.9 Can this attraction possibly be summed up in a “Liza-Minnelli-Effect”? No matter how damning the reviews in some places, the name Liza Minnelli guaranteed commercial success. Was The Act It was conceived from the start as a Minnelli vehicle, but it was left with it Chicago and Victor / Victoria the tills ring as a "substitute woman". The cast with a famous substitute actor was by no means new; rather, it was a tried and tested means.10 Nevertheless, in both cases Minnelli temporarily eclipsed actresses who, firstly, had been in the profession for longer, whose careers were closely linked to Broadway, thirdly, who were strongly identified with the roles they were temporarily relinquishing to Minnelli, and fourthly in the adaptation process Had been actively involved in "their" musicals - after all, Gwen Verdon had a major impetus Chicago and was announced in the press as the star of the future production three years before the premiere.11

A construct in itself12 - from lat. construere = layer, build, build13 -, a star body needs a certain foundation and continuation in order to be able to arise and rise at all. I would like to use the term “star concept” to describe such a basis for continuing over a shorter or longer period of time. The concept - from lat. concipere = recognize, take in, grasp, get pregnant, get an idea, make a draft14 - should in no way oppose the construct, but rather serve it. Because about “a conceptual auxiliary construction for the description of things or phenomena that cannot be specifically observed, but can only be inferred from other observable data "15 From a theater studies perspective, a concept, i.e. a planning draft, makes sense to make it possible. According to Richard Dyer, what is interesting about stars is the problem of their construction.16 This problem can be better explained with a concept for the star Liza Minnelli. While I see the construction as the result of a reception by the audience, I understand the concept as a medial path that a performer treads in order to be received by the audience.

On a discourse-analytical basis, I want to locate Minnelli as a star in terms of cultural history. The gay community plays a significant role in the genesis of Minnelli's star concept, which is made up of different media forms. Even if the literature is very burdened with film studies for good reasons, this is a theater studies work: Here aspects of staging, physicality and costuming come into focus, providing the answer to the question of why Minnelli is a star of the gay community, i.e. one The gay icon is - the magazine Out about selected it in 2014 in his list of 12 Greatest Female Gay Icons of All Time17.

2 Who or what is a star? Approaching a definition

According to popular usage, there are stars in many fields, but not every celebrity is a star.18 This is how Hans-Otto Hügel, Professor of Popular Culture at the University of Hildesheim, introduces his thoughts on the concept of the star. In doing so, he immediately contradicts communication scientist Peter Ludes, according to which “personalized extraordinaryness or extraordinaryness” makes the star.19 Previous star research has primarily looked at film and music stars, as a result of which these two media penetrate the local attempt at definition. The corresponding researchers come from different areas of film, theater, music, art, culture, media, communication and social sciences and use terms such as star, diva, media person, person, persona, figure, role, character in according to different contexts and from their own perspective - sometimes, however, they actually juggle with these titles and do not always clarify clearly why and when they use which term. If you want to research stars, you should arm yourself against contradictions and confusion.

Media scientist Knut Hickethier suggests: The star is a person who not only embodies a role credibly through their physical presence, demeanor, gestures and facial expressions, but also fascinates an audience and fixes them on their person. Hickethier understands the star as a medium that is tied to an institution in public, that focuses this media public through his person, and thus represents an integrative force by letting the audience bind itself to this public through him. However, he is not necessarily bound to a single medium. Hickethier also refers to an aspect that is very important from a theater studies point of view, namely the interaction between the audience and the actor, which makes the “star career” possible at all; the audience must accept the stars and enter into an auratic relationship with them; it must recognize in them in an idealized, exaggerated way properties which it ascribes to itself.20 Logically, Hickethier seeks the basis of the star in mediality and theatricality. Hickethier's prerequisites for a star are the existence of social entertainment media and the techniques of staging, including theatrical ones. In the media context, a certain image independent of the person of the star emerges, which distinguishes itself from other forms of personal prominence.21 The word “person” appears here again and again. Does Hickethier mean the private or the public person? Like some other researchers, he does not delimit these terms from one another or does not seem to attach any importance to such a delimitation. However, this distinction is particularly important from a theater studies perspective, namely because of the division of roles that we humans - and I include the stars - already undertake in our everyday life. When I move in public and possibly even use a theatrical space or a medium, for example a social media channel, for my own staging, I work out a certain (e.g. professional) aspect of my personality and present my private person back. But also in public am I am always this private person at the same time, I cannot erase them. Even a star cannot do this in its entirety as a person.22

If the (private) person, their scandal or their success comes into the public eye, the star loses his status, or to put it with a hill: the star figure is given up, while she remains a pure media person.23 He also uses the term person, but can only mean the private person at this point - gossip magazines pounce almost exclusively on the private life of celebrities and stars, which naturally sometimes takes place in public. In today's multimedia information age, the star cannot prevent parts of his private life from becoming public, and this may be expressed in a simple Wikipedia entry that announces that this or that star has this or that child, other relatives or friends. Hügel differentiates between a star figure and a media person and stipulates that the star is a media person, but not every media person can be a star. In the case of stars, the work and image are received together, with the image being an integral part of the work and the work cannot be perceived without an image. Even caught in the narrative flow of the film, we see the star influenced by his image. A star figure is created in a synthetic process in which perception allows image and work to merge.24

The image of the star must become a culturally significant sign, but it is not identical with the work, because both lie on different time levels and have their own story before their meaning grows together through the emergence of the star figure. Stars need a base, namely through the introduction of a media person of the same name. But even these two terms are not identical: For example, the historical person Norma Jeane Baker, to whom the media person refers, is dead, but the star Marilyn Monroe still exists.25 In this way, Hügel concretizes Hickethier's view that stars are tied to epochs and historical phases; if conditions change, stars can lose their attraction unless they credibly make a change themselves.26 Isn't this consideration based on Richard Dyer's assertion that what is interesting about stars is not the character they construct in their traditional acting role, but rather the craft / history / problem ("business") of this construction, performance and existence?27 When Ingrid Bergman left Hollywood in 1949 to work in Italy with the director Roberto Rossellini, who soon became her new husband, she temporarily lost her star status, which Hügel justifies with the fact that a media person's image and work are separable. Bergman only regained her star status when she returned to Hollywood and the audience forgave her.28 That sounds badly constructed, but this is how Hügel himself states: Stars are constructs. The production of their meaning takes place mainly through reception. The star status, d. H. the unity of image and work does not end until the star figure has lost its cultural significance.29

3 The star image - another approximation

Stars stand and speak for themselves, their images are incomparable.30 Difficult to paraphrase linguistically and to grasp as a whole only pictorially, Hügel Images defines images as highly condensed and structurally complex images in the creation process, which only convince and function in their time. If this time is over, an image in the historical-cultural process loses its meaning and validity.31 Hickethier tries to understand the concept of the star image using Richard Dyer as well as Robert C. Allen and Douglas Gomery: The image is a public representation that is meaningful for the audience and can be found in various texts such as promotion, advertising, films, criticism, and comments. An image could possibly change constantly and be contradictory and ambiguous, because stars have different meanings for different viewers and fulfill very disparate needs and wishes. He sets up three sub-categories of the star image: the actor, the worker and the biographical person in the private sphere.32 Hickethier's treatise is more sociological in focus. His use of different terms - here we suddenly encounter the "biographical person" - is problematic. But Hickethier himself admits that many terms merge into one another. In addition, with Dyer he refers to a fundamental star researcher who has the image as a complex, changeable whole with chronological and temporal dimensions33 understands that it is made up of nested visual, verbal and aural signs34. According to Dyer, this constitution can be applied to the general image (i.e. image) of fame / celebrity ("stardom") as well as to an individual star.35 He sees “Stardom” as an image of the way of life of stars, which can generally be regarded as a version of the “American Dream”, which is organized around the topics of consumption, success and everyday life.36 If the admiration for the star and his image takes on particularly conspicuous forms, the star becomes a "cult figure". Hügel distinguishes this from the “diva”, who is characterized by the fact that her performance quality (meaning: her quality of the performative act) catches the eye and she emphasizes the distance to the audience. The bigger the star, the more determined his images: Marilyn Monroe's still image with a blown dress over the ventilation shaft of the subway from the film The Seven Year Itch (1955), for example, burned itself into cultural memory37 - so it's iconic. Because here Hügel approaches the concept of the icon38whose meaning coincides with the image. Stars are just "stars", i. H. inaccessible because they are so far away and yet as real as the firmament that makes them visible in the first place.39

4 Historical development of the role of the Hollywood star

In 1979, Richard Dyer found that stars are largely considered a vital element in Hollywood's economy. They represented some form of capital, they guaranteed profit, and they sold the films by their name. But stars are also gaining and losing popularity and, Dyer concludes dryly, ultimately cannot guarantee anything.40

According to Richard De Cordova, genuine film stars differ from “picture personalities” through the inclusion or targeted construction of non-film, private images in the public presentation.The continuity between images outside and inside the film became an essential feature of the classic Hollywood star, who served as a brand name and was supposed to guarantee the success of the film.41 In the 1930s and 1940s, the major Hollywood studios operated as vertically integrated companies that controlled domestic sales to encourage anti-competitive trading practices. In an attempt to protect themselves against risks, the studios stars used racehorses from their own stables to market their films and to stabilize audience needs.42 For nearly three decades, this star machine supplied Hollywood with movie stars: Stars were discovered, tested, reworked, advertised and cast according to types non-stop. However, in the late 1950s, the system collapsed.43 After the studio era, the stars were given an even more central role in securing funding for productions and selling the films.44

The crisis-ridden restructuring also had consequences for the star system. Overall, fewer films were made and the studios waived the long-term loyalty of the stars, which now served as a central marketing tool from film to film, and thus also the maintenance of their images, which was very costly.45 Independent producers were now gaining influence and actors were able to appear in a variety of films and work with rotating production teams. Demographic and cultural upheavals initiated an even more severe economic crisis for Hollywood from the mid-1960s. At a time when new filmmakers were establishing themselves and making “outsider films”, young actresses such as Faye Dunaway and Jane Fonda represented the current lifestyle of the younger cinema audience and the oppositional currents of youth culture.46 After 1972 at the latest, crisis-ridden Hollywood remembered the show values ​​of its stars. Again, and parallel to the new realism, there were reductions in the star typage47who conjured up the former dream factory48. From the mid-1970s, the newly formulated blockbusters set completely new standards with their box office results.49 In the post-studio era, stars showed themselves to be more independent and changeable, produced their own image and selected (sometimes forced) their own roles. However, the emerging blockbuster cinema thwarted this development with its market mechanisms, whereupon the stars now paid attention to a certain role continuity.50

Film historian Jeanine Basinger summed up in 2007 that the film business has long since ceased to be interested in creating stars; his goals have shifted and stars are no longer the primary capital that a studio must own. The priority is no longer with the production of stars, but with that of blockbuster hits.51 The already mentioned Faye Dunaway, a leading Hollywood star from the late 1960s to the late 1970s, stated in her time: “A star today has to take charge of every aspect of her career. There are no studios to do it for you. "52 In today's (film) world, stars are basically left to fend for themselves.53

5 Making a movie star

Films occupy a distinct and privileged place in the image of a star. Jack Babuscio sees the star as a phenomenon of cinema and general social meanings. It is not without reason that films were designed around a star image, especially in the studio era of Hollywood.54 Stars are as contradicting as their images; the star's paradox is based on the actor's paradox, who, according to Denis Diderot, is based on the ambivalence of appearance and reality.55 The star should appear as a natural, undisguised person and only exist through a high degree of division of labor in the media production in the culture industry, only through it become a "system" that has a certain independence within media production and reception.56

The craft of acting ("acting"), according to Dyer established in the US in his own way through Broadway, is the ability of a performer to be different in each role he plays, which leads to a certain tension between the " real acting ”(theater) and“ just being ”(film) lead.57 According to Elizabeth Burns, the actor steps between on the one hand the authenticity of his own life, his own self and his past, which he is aware of and which is also at least partially known to the audience or is accepted by him, and on the other hand the authenticated life of the character he is playing .58 According to Dyer, the star breaks that distinction.59 According to the philosopher Stanley Cavell, he could be born in an exemplary, exemplary presentation on the screen ("exemplary screen performance"), distanced from a mere person. Cavell tries to explain this using the film star Humphrey Bogart. "Bogart" stands for the character who was created in a certain series of films. If these films do not exist, then Bogart does not exist either, i. H. the name "Bogart" would not mean what it actually means60, because: "His presence in those films is who he is."61 The named figure is not only in our presence, but we are also in it, in the only sense that we could ever be. Of course, Humphrey Bogart also appeared in films before and after the decisive film noir productions of the 1940s, but Cavell counts these among those films that do not create or define new stars.62 Stars are there to be stared at and their actors ask for our projections. A screen performer arises in the sense of creating a character - not the kind of character that an author creates, but the kind that certain real people are: a type.63

With the term “screen performer” Cavell means in this context a “screen persona” or a film character. But isn't it more complicated? The actor creates a character, but this does not necessarily have to correspond to a type that we meet in everyday life. Unusual, unusual types that deviate from the “norm”, special, conspicuous, eccentric characters created by an actor, possibly merge the actor and the role he is playing, namely into a film character. From this same film character a star figure (here: film star) can emerge or he can at least coincide with her. If a film character moves through several films in a perhaps modified but predominantly similar manner, it condenses into a recognizable "screen persona", a screen personality that we associate with the star body.

6 Genesis of the star body Liza Minnelli

6.1 Media origin

Liza Minnelli's (* 1946) parents are Judy Garland (1922–1969) and Vincente Minnelli (1903–1986), both of whom are closely interwoven with the history of the film musical in general and its artificial development in the Hollywood studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in particular are. Together with her film partner Mickey Rooney, Garland formed the leading MGM musical couple in the early 1940s. At the time she was particularly concerned with her role as Dorothy in Victor Flemings The Wizard of Oz (1939) established. During the Second World War, MGM, whose slogan was “more stars than there are in heaven”, was synonymous with a talent pool to which both Garland and director Vincente Minnelli belonged. The two contributed for the first time Meet Me in St. Louis (1944) together, an outstanding, high-quality musical that is considered a prime example of the MGM style, which has been driven to perfection to date technically and aesthetically, and for the film musical genre as such.64

Garland's roots were in American vaudeville, a genre that offered a wide range of entertainment and whose peak slowly ebbed away in the 1920s. Emerging from the vaudeville, the vaudeville served a mixed gender audience, spread the values ​​of the Progressive Era (social activism and political reforms between 1865 and 1918) and appealed to the rising, growing middle class. At the heart of every vaudeville show was a headliner - a star who might later make the leap to Hollywood.65 One of them was Judy Garland, who was involved in her family's vaudeville activities as a small child, later formed a vocal trio with her sisters and was hired by the MGM studio for film and music recordings as a teenager. The American Film Institute named Garland in its 1999 list of the 25 Greatest American Female Screen Legends.66 Although she appeared as a concert singer in theaters, she never worked as a stage actress and was therefore never involved in the production of musicals.67

Nor was a stage actor Vincente Minnelli, who had come to Radio City Music Hall in New York from Hollywood studio Paramount in the 1930s as a costume designer, set designer and artistic director.68 His innovative strength in musical productions secured him the attention of the film industry. Ultimately, he was first and foremost impressed on the minds of an international audience as a director of film musicals; he became the “virtual father of the modern musical”. Between 1943 and 1976 the prestigious one was valid69 Minnelli as one of the most influential filmmakers in Hollywood.70 Minnelli's return to the theater after a decade-long absence was a flop when he played the musical in 1967 Mata Hari staged.71

Thanks to her role subject or her type of actress ’the Ingénue72 Judy Garland's star became a gay icon. She publicly exhibited her vulnerability, but always countered her failure with an emotional intensity that allowed her to keep going and trying to find her way through again and again. As the cultural scientist Elisabeth Bronfen so aptly put it, Garland was a star who survived disasters only to later report on the torments. She embodied the American girl, who, thanks to her mixture of down-to-earth attitude and daydream, had made her breakthrough into the magical land of celebrity. MGM staged her as a representative of the cinema audience, drawing viewers into the film world and nourishing the central myth of Hollywood as a dream factory.73 And Vincente Minnelli? Don't we have to count him among the gay icons too? Was he (closed) bisexual, (closed) gay? Every author expresses himself differently. According to film critic Adrian Martin, Minnelli's sexuality was either an open question or an open secret, depending on which Hollywood story you want to believe.74

In the words of film historian James Morrison, Liza Minnelli is a figure at the meeting point of old and new Hollywood. Originally, Minnelli, as a clumsy girl, embodied an antithesis to conventional star glamor. She wanted to prove her dramatic skills outside of the musical field at an early age. Her first three films were non-musical and showed her in the roles of lovable outsiders who represented the youth of the 1960s and the generational conflict and also brought up the theme of counterculture. The public perceived this young Liza Minnelli as a quirky girl who turned up in elegant restaurants wearing baggy sweatshirts and jeans.75 However, it is not a hybrid, as Jeanine Basinger sees in Clint Eastwood, whom she describes as a connection between the old system and the new. Born within the studio system from attending Universal Studios school in the 1950s, Eastwood survived the breakdown of that system by moving to television and then Europe to eventually gain a foothold in the new US film business of the 1970s.76

6.2 Professional basis in the theater to introduce the media person

Basinger mentions Barbra Streisand as the only woman who came from the traditional entertainment industry, that is, from Broadway and became a movie star around 1970.77 Musical expert Laurence Maslon names Streisand in one go with Julie Andrews as the two greatest female Broadway stars of the 1960s and as the leading musical performers of their time, who left a gaping void with their departure from Broadway in order to make a career in Hollywood .78 Her first Broadway production Flora, the Red Menace (1965) could also have made Liza Minnelli a star. To search for the origins of her star body is flora not to be disregarded. Although not a diva role in the traditional sense, the young fashion illustrator Flora Meszaros, who falls in love with a communist during the Great Depression, is one of a number of strong-willed female lead roles because she is iconoclastic, free-thinking, ambitious, confident, and conventionally romantic. Musicologist James Leve compares Flora with the musical characters Charity Hope (Sweet Charity), Fanny Brice (Funny girl) and Dolly Levi (Hello, Dolly!), which in the 1960s did not correspond to the blue-blooded, dispassionately pretty Ingénue of the past musical theater, but were psychologically complex and ethnically characterized romantic lead roles.79Flora, the Red Menace from the pen of John Kander and Fred Ebb saw a total of 87 performances from May to June 1965 and met with mixed criticism, but Minnelli received mostly praise80 and a little later won a Tony Award for best musical actress81. A Flora- Poster proclaimed Minnelli a "big new star on Broadway".82 But was that justified? The author calls Ethan Mordden flora simply "the show that didn't make Liza Minnelli a star".83 That may have been because the hugely successful musical Hello, Dolly! put all of its competitors in the shade in the same season.84

In 1966, Minnelli spoke 20 times for the role of Sally Bowles in Kanders and Ebbs Cabaret both of which always voted for her, but the producer cast this British character with a British actress. However, Minnelli took the title song permanently into her musical repertoire for the next few years.85 Was Minnelli the mediocre result of Flora, the Red Menace - "the show that didn’t make Liza Minnelli a star" - consciously? If we can believe her biographer Peter Carrick, then she had by means of Cabaret hoping for an ultimate breakthrough on Broadway, which probably explains why she auditioned again and again despite the rejection.86 Minnelli hadn't risen to the rank of Broadway star as suddenly as her colleagues Julie Andrews and Barbra Streisand had. In contrast to these two, she had won the Tony Award, the highest American theater award in a regular competition category, but the artistically unbalanced one, von Hello, Dolly! beaten Flora, the Red Menace With his only 87 performances, he could not fulfill the function of a stepping stone. Liza Minnelli had not (yet) become a star, but at least she had found an independent professional basis as a theater actress in the musical genre and was now present as a media person or public figure.

6.3 Formation of a first image

Though Liza Minnelli had grown up among the Hollywood film people, she hadn't turned out to be a child actress. Minnelli's first serious artistic interest had been in dance; in her childhood films served only as a medium through which she could explore this very artistic form of expression.87 Minnelli's maturation coincided with a time when Hollywood had already lost its aesthetic monopoly and was trying to overcome its crisis with lavish monumental and musical films.88 In order to distinguish herself from her parents, Liza Minnelli not only played theater as a teenager, but also avoided a possible role stereotype in the film, e.g. B. made a reproduction of Dorothy The Wizard of Oz. In the mid-1960s she turned down three offers from Disney Studios for cheerful musical films and played her first film role in Albert Finneys Charlie Bubbles (1968).89 Finney was one of the "angry young men" of British theater and film and was through the socially realistic drama Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1960) and comedy Tom Jones (1963) became famous as a representative of the British New Wave.90 Minnelli steps in Charlie Bubbles as the young secretary and lover of the eponymous writer, whom Finney embodies himself. Critic Renata Adler from the New York Times found Minnelli to play her role as the shrill, heavy, immature, not yet quite despicable American girl, with wide-eyed eyes and a voice so high that it got on your nerves.91 Did Minnelli with this role possibly follow in the footsteps of the British actress Rita Tushingham, who had also come from the “kitchen sink” film milieu as a temporary work partner of Finney, in its tradition Charlie Bubbles stands? The literature lists Tushingham as an anti-star who "blocked male gaze strategies"92 - did Minnelli play in her rather unpleasant role with exactly this image?

In Alan J. Pakulas The Sterile Cuckoo (1969) and Otto Premingers Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon (1970), Minnelli strengthened her image of the youthful rebel as the leading actress93although Lowry and Korte in The filmstar (2000) Minnelli does not list alongside Faye Dunaway and Jane Fonda as a representative of the youth culture of the time94. In both films, Minnelli played the emotionally devastating95 Roles of young dysfunctional96, unfortunate, unusual women with whom she demonstrated her fondness for vulnerable and at the same time humorous characters97. Bob Fosses Cabaret (1972), which dealt with topics such as bisexuality and decadence, then marked a turning point: Minnelli turned into a vamp on the screen. Her Sally Bowles is a stark contrast to the "girl next door" that her mother Judy Garland has always played. The appearance of a teenage rebel like Minnelli in a homosexual-themed film helped her to become iconic in the early years of the gay movement and her mother's role in the period before that.98

6.4 Manifestation and climax of the star body

6.4.1 Cabaret as a catalyst

Kanders and Ebbs Cabaret, Premiered in 1966, was very theatrical, contradictory and serious - the critics reacted irritated, sometimes incomprehensible to this unique, essential work, which ushered in a new era after Rodgers ’and Hammerstein's Musical Play and was groundbreaking for Stephen Sondheim's work in the 1970s.99 Plot and commentary, play scenes and revue interludes, political history and cultural criticism were all interwoven into a new kind of musical theater, flexible enough to respond to the needs of a changing society. His characters, inconsistent and disenfranchised members of society, express what purely historical facts are unable to convey.100

Based on Christopher Isherwood's collection of short stories The Berlin Stories (1945), Sally Bowles awoke in John Van Druten's stage adaptation I am a camera from 1951 to life for the first time. For the dramatic text (1951), the musical (1966) and the film (1972), the names and / or nationalities of several characters were repeatedly changed, some were deleted, others added.101 The film is about the English writer Brian Roberts, who rents a room in a Berlin guesthouse in 1931, on the eve of the National Socialists' takeover. Sally Bowles, who appears in the numbered cabaret Kit Kat Klub and is hoping for a great acting career, also lives there. Brian and Sally develop a doomed three-way relationship with a wealthy German. Joel Gray, who had already been awarded for his theatrical role, slipped again into the role of the clownish, diabolical cabaret emcee for the film.102

6.4.2 Cinematic reinterpretation of the theater role Sally Bowles as a constant play with role models and their aftermath

Bob Fosse respected the intention of the stage version, but revised the material fundamentally, whereupon he influenced the later revivals in the theater.103 Similar to the original at the theater, the film links the decadence of German culture with the fall of the Weimar Republic, but emphasizes the issue of sexual deviation that is embodied in the cabaret scenes and in the relationship between Sally and Brian. For example, he transforms the heterosexual stage character of Clifford into the withdrawn homosexual or at least bisexual film character of Brian. In contrast to the stage character, Sally does not (only) function as a link between the cabaret and the external action in the film. Fosse emphasizes Sally's importance in cabaret by making her the conférencier's confidante, who is not only his star, but also his accomplice. Sally seems most alive when she is on stage for him, i.e. as part of his moderation. In the face of Brian, she seems like a third-rate talent, but on the cabaret stage she is cheered on as if by a Faustian pact with the emcee.104

In Isherwood's story as well as in Van Druten's text as well as Kander and Ebbs stage musical, Sally Bowles is a hit with the audience who lives through light and darkness and is completely untalented - a failed cabaret singer who is fired after a single number. With her flighty, manic, and therefore apparently attractive demeanor, she secures the support of wealthy men to make a living. A dream role for an actress, according to Tyler Coates: very good lyrics, the opportunity to show off, and no vocal talent required. Minnelli turns Sally Bowles into a triumphant artist. This film Sally has long ceased to be an untalented failure who desperately exploits her few strengths. She clearly stands out from the other girls in the Kit Kat Klub and apparently knows how to deal with her opponents. Minnelli does not portray Sally tragically. After the end of the film we do not know how she will fare, but in her last shot we remember her as steadfast and proud. She stands by her principles, demands her independence, knows about her mistakes and celebrates them: Minnelli's interpretation of the title song is a cheeky, enthusiastic affirmation of life.105 This already most popular song in the musical is usually an upbeat call to party life. But we must not ignore how ironic its context is, and how malicious it is in the middle.106 Minnelli lifts the song into a new, larger dimension.

With Sir Sally introduces herself at the beginning: a clearly stylized homage to Marlene Dietrich, a satirical song, the Dietrichs I'm head to toe set for love / Falling in Love Again from Josef von Sternberg's film Der Blaue Engel / The Blue Angel (1930) pays its tribute. In black suspenders and bowlers, Sally and the other Kit-Kat girls perform a farewell song to a former lover while they pose and move on chairs.107 In the sequence of Sir Minnelli appears as Sally Bowles like a rebirth of Dietrich's Lola: an open, transparent secret for everyone who deals with sexuality more bluntly than all men and therefore appears mysterious, veiled and attractive to them. Neither discarded nor childishly innocent siren, she simply cannot be touched by the values ​​of men. With her vital vulgarity, Dietrich embodied eroticism in Sternberg's films in her time, in which she unfolded her own characteristics in a fascinating way. As a cinema character, Dietrich reveals that the world in which she has to get through is not one made by women for women, but never lets it come to the point of being a suffering victim.108

Minnelli's film role has little in common with Sally from the theater adaptations of the 1950s and 1960s. It is derived from the silent film star Louise Brooks, Marlene Dietrich and Judy Garland. The American Brooks appeared in a short series of European films in 1929/30; her page cut was copied for Minnelli's film hairstyle. Minnelli's hyperexpressive performance brings out the idiosyncrasies of her mother Judy Garland - but conjured up in the tradition of Brooks ’silent film acting. As Sally, Minnelli repeatedly conveys her extreme neediness; their exaggerations can easily be understood as the barrel of security that their secret desires purport to obscure.109

For Louise Brooks (1906–1985), who enjoyed the Roaring Twenties to the full, the role of the hedonist was not just a pose, but largely coincided with her lifestyle. Brooks allowed himself to be endured by many men, but in the process retained her autonomy, took money and gifts, but was neither for sale nor willing to compromise and acted out of conviction and lust.110 Her disguise role in William A. Wellmans Beggars of Life (1928) gave her star image a bisexual tinge; many fans thought she was a lesbian.111 Brooks shot her two most important films in Germany. Georg Wilhelm Pabst staged it in 1929 Diary of a Lost One and Pandora's Box.112 Both were revealing, sexually defined roles. As an almost unknown American in Germany, she played with Lulu the coveted, most erotic and also “most German” of all female roles that the German-speaking actresses tore.113 Minnelli cited in Cabaret not just Brooks ’acting style; her Sally looks just like Brooks ’Lulu in Pandora striking. There are also parallels between Minnelli's Sally and Brooks ’Lulu. Even before Brooks, numerous actresses had embodied Lulu in the theater, based on Frank Wedekind's dramatic texts Earth spirit and Pandora's Box. Lulu is an innocent young hedonist who drives her lovers and herself to their deaths without any ill will, amoral and innocent at the same time; she knows no sin, lives for the moment and destroys men in passing. According to William Shawn, Brooks created her Lulu, often portrayed by other actors, "in silence and from within" and elevated this film character to the epitome of the childish femme fatale. Brooks ’Lulu has stood her ground on screen, influencing and permeating every other representation of the character.114

In the 1990s and 2010s, several renowned actresses interpreted the Sally Bowles on the occasion of two Broadway revivals of the musical. However, none of them came close to Minnelli's account. That's because Minnelli turned Sally's character into a star who was never intended to be a star. It has set a new, far too high standard, incompatible with the way in which Sally Bowles' character is written. We could also call Minnelli a miscast - but a wonderfully functioning miscast. Because she characterized Sally in a completely different and unique way and tied her to her own biography, she basically spoiled her for other interpreters in Tyler Coate's words.115 The film was not only Fosse's successful media reworking of the musical, it was also a product by and for Minnelli in order to make her a star. Every new interpreter cannot and must not orientate herself to Minnelli and has to find her own approach to Sally's character. What is taken for granted in the acting profession is put to the test by Minnelli's film character because she is so dominant and omnipresent.

6.4.3 Creation of a film icon: The film character “Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles” in a film still

One film scene that essentially illustrates the rise of Minnelli's star figure and has iconic value is the song's sequence Sir. Star characters Liza Minnelli, actress Liza Minnelli, film character "Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles" merge in it and declare the previous interpretation of the theater role Sally Bowles passé. Minnelli wears her ultimate costume: black vest, shorts, suspenders, boots, collar, bowler; her lips are deep red, her eyelids blue-green, her cheek painted with a blemish. The hair of her black goblin hairstyle is set up steeply on the neck. Sally is placed right in the middle of the Kit Kat Klub stage, surrounded by the other girls. The prop of their performance is a chair. Bob Fosse's choreography appropriates this chair for multiple functions. It serves as a step for Sally to put one leg on, then as a platform, because the next moment she swings up to crouch on him, and he is her support. Of the highest iconic value in this sequence, however, is Minnelli's statue on the stage ramp (see Fig. 1, p. 43). Sally has left her chair and danced to the edge of the stage, where she sings part of the chorus for a few seconds. There she is now, legs apart and upright, like a black and white figure thanks to the pale complexion and the dark costume - the visual reference to Dietrich and Brooks alone is therefore unmistakable. Overall, Minnelli's body forms a triangle. The slender legs are stretched out from each other at an acute angle, the arms are almost close to the body, although they are in motion and are about to move on to the next dance step. Sally looks challengingly into the audience and her posture looks like nothing less than the Colossus of Rhodes, while the other girls are singing and clapping on their chairs and looking at her or the audience.116 Sally stands in front of them physically, but above them inwardly. It rises up like a monument and stands firmly on the ground, but seems to want to take off immediately. Sally left her rivals behind and won the Kit Kat Club, just as Minnelli won the big screen. Actress and star body Liza Minnelli have merged. In this unique, unrepeatable moment, they condition, overlap and overlap. Minnelli thus completes her star concept. From now on the star body will dominate in film, television and theater and make us almost completely forget the actress. Only the performative act on the concert stage will bring the actress back into the limelight, albeit encased by her persona117 (see pp. 27–29), by which I mean the theatrical fictional character on the music stage, as Schlichter, Bruns and Meyer define them.

7 Image

In the 1970s, the media gave Minnelli the role of the heiress of a supposed Hollywood dynasty, creating a tension between Minnelli's pride in her legacy on the one hand and her desire to forge a different, individual identity on the other. Minnelli's endeavors to claim such an identity separate from her family heritage interwoven with her distance from traditional star glamor.118

7.1 In the film

In the rest of the decade after Cabaret pondered her film career on the legacy of old Hollywood and spoke explicitly with Judy Garland's image.119 Minnelli's three film roles after Cabaret resembled only fuzzy distortions of a Sally Bowles.120 They also played a self-reflective game with film history by relegating Minnelli to the mere deputy of Classical Hollywood. Stanley Donens Lucky lady (1975) tried to mix the spirit of a 1930s film with the nervousness and violence of New Hollywood. Liza Minnelli stood for the former, her two co-stars Gene Hackman and Burt Reynolds for the latter.121 Vincente Minnelli let in A matter of time (1976) his daughter Liza acted as a maid who relived the memories of an old countess. Ingrid Bergman embodies this countess, and that of all things in a film, the action of which is set in Italy in 1949, when Bergman left Hollywood and lost her star status. A matter of time Ultimately tells the story of an aspiring actress who tests the talent and personality of Vincente Minnelli's daughter, who is always surrounded by the spirit of her mother. Bergman's cast underscores its ubiquity: an icon of old Hollywood feeds the young woman's fantasies.122 Martin Scorsese drove it New York, New York (1977) to the extreme by bowing to the film musicals Vincente Minnellis and having his daughter act simply as a reproduction of her mother in the MGM studio set of the 1940s.123 Here Minnelli was playing against a style that was perceived as very contemporary. Robert De Niro, trained in method acting, now symbolized New Hollywood. Scorsese's film is a complex reflection of these two styles. The failure of the romance between the two main characters suggests that the worlds of Classical Hollywood and New Hollywood are never compatible. At the same time, it is an ominous conclusion to Minnelli's future as a star.124

7.2 On TV

Two years ago Cabaret wrote Ebb Minnelli's first special Liza on US television, which referred to the traditions of the classic American entertainment industry or musical theater, enriched with movie songs and skits that paid tribute to vaudeville. The theme of the show was the show business that Minnelli was born into. 1972 followed Liza with a Zwhich Leve said shaped Minnelli's career. There was no overriding theme: it was just about Liza Minnelli - a show about making legends of show business.Ebb had constructed a very specific show business identity for Minnelli: that of a legend in the making; the image of the daughter of a star who is enveloped by its reputation and at the same time wants to escape from it.125 This identity developed through Cabaret and Liza with a Z quickly to a fixed, self-referential cliché, to an anachronism that is as captivating as it is ghostly.126

Fred Ebb continued with the tried and tested method of self-reflective television specials. In 1980, Minnelli appeared in two specials: Deconstructed as a show-in-a-show Goldie and Liza Together and Baryshnikov on Broadway the genre of the backstage musical by letting the stars play themselves and giving the audience a glimpse behind the scenes. Either way, Liza Minnelli and her co-stars are rehearsing for the same special we're watching. Both Goldie Hawn and Mikhail Baryshnikov let the "veteran" Minnelli explain the world of Broadway musicals to them.127 With her film career ruined in the late 1970s, Minnelli sold herself on the two shows as a renowned Broadway artist to look up to. In retrospect, this is not entirely credible. Minnelli was not Julie Andrews or Barbra Streisand, as we have already established, and, unlike these two performers, her theatrical work was not directly linked to her beginnings as a film actress. Andrews ’and Streisand's sensational charisma on Broadway had convinced the Hollywood producers, while Minnelli's first film projects - all without a music-dramatic background - were completely independent of their mediocre, albeit award-winning, success Flora, the Red Menace been. But Minnelli now had to refer to her roots if she wanted to convince the public - that is, to musical theater. Without the musical genre, the actress Liza Minnelli might not have existed, without a musical she would not have met Kander and Ebb, without a musical her entire star concept would be unthinkable.

8 persona

The lyric poet Fred Ebb, Minnelli's congenial work partner from 1964 until his death in 2004, has recognized the confluence of talent and biography in the star body Liza Minnelli. Minnelli is Ebb's mouthpiece, with which he lived out his deepest desires and his own fantasy of stardom - a symbiosis that met the insatiable need for applause on both sides. His lyrics, stage and television programs invented and developed their glamorous persona, whose evocative tone is omnipresent during conversation with the audience.128 Like Minnelli in May 2009 in conversation with time -Editor Katja Nicodemus said that Fred Ebb "really invented it"; through his songs she had the feeling of finding a language.129 Or as Leve puts it: "Ebb [...] devoted considerable energy to playing Pygmalion to Liza Minnelli’s Galatea."130 With the help of the songs by Kander and Ebb, Minnelli stylized herself as a survivor. Songs like Theme from New York, New York, Cabaret or Maybe This Time are exaggerated hymns of survival that drive the female chest voice increasingly upwards and thereby force the singer to intensify vocal corporeality. The singing necessary to interpret such songs is an act of self-determination. By literally overcoming the physical challenge of these numbers, the artist expresses her will to survive. Minnelli ultimately built her entire career on this type of performative act.131

Much like many interpreters of French chanson, Minnelli always manages to meet the expectations of her audience in terms of repertoire, image and artistic performance. This gives it an authenticity that manifests itself in a believable demeanor, which in turn offers the audience many opportunities for identification.132 The Romanist Andreas Bonnermeier formulates the following effect, which clearly also applies to Minnelli:

It is not uncommon for types of symbioses to develop between the interpreters and their audience, from which both sides benefit: The interpreters enjoy the applause and encouragement from the audience, while the audience gets the impression that the interpreters live only for their fans and that they are in play a central role in their lives. The interpreters, however, sometimes pay a high price for their artistic success, for example through an excessive life […] or through loneliness, failed love relationships and the renunciation of children and family life […]. Performers like Édith Piaf or Dalida, who give everything for their fans, are basically in a relationship with their audience and live for their art [...].133

All characteristics are applicable to the American Liza Minnelli and make her claim as a chanteuse of the musical genre. It is not without reason that it was nicknamed “la petite Piaf américaine” in France, based on Édith Piaf.134 Journalists, critics and biographers have repeatedly described this close bond between Minnelli and her followers, the mutual give and take during the performative act. At this point, Charles Isherwood's exemplary review is too Minnelli on Minnelli referenced in 1999:

Minnelli is one of the last practitioners of a particular strain of showbiz that draws on this mutual, personal give and take: We sustain our favorites with our love and loyalty as they have sustained us with their artistry. Call it a healthier kind of co-dependence.135

Minnelli's persona is the house that she builds through her performative act on the music stage and in which her song interpretations gather. She is the stylized survivor who lets us be part of how she wants to escape the aura of her parents in order to manifest her own status. An escape that never ends and that must never succeed, which is why it casts us so much under its spell. Judy Garland's image of the star reporting her own torment has varied: She is the star who always wants to prove anew that as a performer he has to trust himself, lives in the moment and at that moment neither on his origin nor on may leave the media outside the theater. This proof is exhausting, a show of strength, a self-flagellation, a lifelong crux, but also a festival, a celebration of transience, fleetingness and constant growth and decay. We constantly watch Minnelli survive on stage. Survival is to be defined in several respects: survival in the sense of the oversized performer, i.e. the star who above acts on the other artists; the survival of the strenuous viewing of the performative act - crystallized in the survival hymns Kanders and Ebbs -; the survival of origin, which is both a blessing and a curse; the survival of show business, which the private person threatens to swallow.

9 diva? The gay icon

If we follow Tiina Rosenberg's remarks, Liza Minnelli's pitch of the (counter) alto cannot be clearly distinguished from the dramatic mezzo-soprano, such as Barbra Streisand, with whom Minnelli was compared, especially in the 1960s. Both voices have by and large the same range, but the contralto sounds darker, sometimes almost "obscene".136 According to Hans-Otto Hügel, singers with deep female voices create a fascinating soundscape of gender ambiguity both on and off the stage and never formulate an unbroken ideal of femininity.137 This eccentric gender behavior that Hügel speaks of is an important part of Minnelli's image, commonly viewed as a gay icon, or, to use Rosenberg's term, a queer diva. Although Rosenberg does not mention Minnelli in her short list of queer divas (and neither does her mother Judy Garland), the characteristics she has chosen apply to Minnelli: greatness ("larger-than-life"), an unhappy love life, Strokes of fate, sacrifice.138 For homosexuals, there is generally a strong identification with the theater: In view of external manifestations, roles in theater - including gender roles - are superficial and a question of design. Thus life itself is role play and theater, appearance and imitation.139 Leve pointedly:

Gay men identify with the diva musical because it gives voice to concerns that they themselves cannot express in a homophobic society, and they project their own outsiderness onto the diva.140

In this respect, for example, Andrew Tudor's model of the relationship between audience and star can be applied very well to Liza Minnelli and her gay followers, because it is based on identification and imitation and declares the star to be a phenomenon of consumption.141 Ian Jarvie emphasizes the function of the star, including an ideal of beauty, to fix a type, and to help a physical type to identify.142 The critic Clive Barnes once spoke to Liza Minnelli Gamin -Property143 to, with which he certainly alluded to Minnelli's boyish appearance, her androgyny, her often naive body language and her mostly boyish habit and thus tied her to her gay audience. Minnelli's portrayal of Sally Bowles reflects sexual daring and sexual performance144: "[...] she is more a fag hag than a sexually promiscuous woman."145 At least since Cabaret The dark hair, the equally dark, large eyes and the artificial eyelashes are Minnelli's trademarks. The designers Roy Halston Frowick and Bob Mackie created numerous sequin costumes for Minnelli's public appearances and stage shows. Her goblin hairstyle, her intense, luscious eyelashes and eyebrows and her sequin ensembles combined to form a typical "Liza look", as Scott Schechter pointedly.146 Thanks to this appearance, the performer Liza Minnelli is a star in the truest sense of the word: her sparkling costumes and her star-shaped statues on the stage, which she often takes after a song - the straight legs are at an acute angle, the arms are backwards stretched out, the head thrown back (see Fig. 2 and 3, p. 44) - transform it into a star that illuminates and blinds its audience. Most gay men do not want the feminine side of a diva, but the very things that the character played by the diva desires.147 Minnelli's costumes and her performative act on stage to produce and stage her persona have inspired numerous travesty artists, e. B. Trevor Ashley.148

The role type of the theatrical diva, which she in 1977/78 in the musical The Act149 as an actress, it hardly equates to Minnelli. Bronfen's characteristics of a diva only apply to Minnelli to a limited extent: the diva is a star who stands on the limit and goes to the limit, mostly coming from the fringes of society; Their fame usually represents a tragic escape from the inadequacy of their own biography; In contrast to the star, she transforms her pain, which does not damage her image, but becomes part of it; she constantly changes between real person and fictional character, so that the authenticity of the actress and the authenticity of the characters she plays coincide even more than with other stars; in their self-staging they exhaust themselves physically and mentally and repeatedly demonstrate their vulnerability.150 Minnelli, however, comes from the establishment of Classical Hollywood and is its incarnate product. She never fled from a certain inadequacy, but from the great shadow of her parents - an escape that was not tragic but calculated. Minnelli only alternates between a real person and a fictional character in the case of Sally Bowles, because her star has become one with this film role. Only in the point of self-staging is Bronfen's definition applicable to Minnelli, because, thanks to her persona of the stylized survival artist, she repeatedly pushes the limits through her performative act on stage.

Hügel contradicts Bronfen insofar as a star also addresses suffering in some form and integrates it into his star figure.151 Grotjahn, Schmidt and Seedorf advocate referring and differentiating the diva phenomenon to historical-cultural contexts using case studies from different areas of culture.152 This suits Tiina Rosenberg's use of the term queer diva, which refers to gay pop culture. In addition, thanks to this consideration, a gap opens up in Hügel's star view of 2004, because stars are not only tied to epochs and historical phases, but also to social groups and certain cultural areas: Liza Minnelli is not only closely related to gay pop culture (before especially the 1970s), but also to anchor in the USA, more precisely in Hollywood and Broadway. In these cultural areas there are media that an artist has to use in order to be noticed, because, in Hügel's words, the introduction of a media person is required153to form the basis of his possible star body. Liza Minnelli, who came from a spatially, socially and culturally specific media environment (Hollywood), used different media one after the other: first the theater, then the recording studio, then the film, and parallel to this, television and the music stage. Which audience did you primarily address? It was primarily the gay community that received the development of the star Liza Minnelli.

10 star concept

Liza Minnelli's star concept (see appendix, p. 45) is based on the following foundation: the Hollywood film, more precisely the classic film musical, which has been influenced by American vaudeville and theater and has at the same time constantly referred to. As a result, her name alone speaks volumes, because she is the daughter of two film greats who have shaped the musical genre. This name, her biography and her medial origin identify her private and public person (for Hügel: media person). Together they form the first half of their star concept, which in turn is partly the basis of the second half. This second half, namely the artistic half, is made up of four parts. The first part is the theater where Liza Minnelli started her serious acting career and was introduced as a media person. The second part is the film that went beyond the step of the theater to make her a star. Liza Minnelli said thanks Cabaret her own place in the film musical genre and also advanced to become a gay icon thanks to her self-reflective play with role models that are considered gay icons. The third part is television, which functioned as an interface and even represented her star concept best: Grown in the theater, nourished by film, Minnelli immortalized herself on television as a classic American all-round entertainer, whose career would have been impossible without theater and film would be, but could not draw from these two media alone. The fourth part is the music, more precisely the work in the recording studio, which also acted as an interface and often linked to theater and film (recordings of soundtracks and show-cast albums, etc.), but the essence of the star concept does not come to the fore to the same extent brought like the television. These are the four segments that are mutually dependent, have been updated and varied through projects and characterize Minnelli's life's work. This previous life's work of the workforce154 merges with the mere public person (or: media person) to form the star figure Liza Minnelli, who doesn't have to do anything but be famous and who at best produces a clearly recognizable image. The staging of this star concept only works in the long term thanks to the auratic relationship155that the gay community enters into with its actor and star Minnelli and that expresses itself in identification and imitation and constructs the star body in this receptive way. Users of the ranking platform ranker.com voted Minnelli (as of 2018) at number 16 of the 66 Greatest Gay Icons in Music with the editorial justification: "The daughter of gay icon Judy Garland and bisexual filmmaker Vincete [sic!] Minnelli, it is only natural that Liza Minnelli has a huge gay following. [...] "156

11 Conclusion: The film star in the theater as a physical contradiction

From the beginning, Liza Minnelli was caught in a kind of time leap, as journalist Kevin Winkler puts it.Audiences identified Minnelli with her mother's music and style, for example because of her duets with Mickey Rooney or Jimmy Durante on television in the 1960s, which made her appear like a younger version of Judy Garland.157 As Leve points out, when compared to Barbra Streisand, Minnelli did not prefer the glamorous route, but rather the role of the ugly duckling who works harder than everyone else. This ugly duckling was a role that film producers Judy Garland had in Classical Hollywood. Fred Ebb transferred his admiration for the role to Garland's daughter when he helped create her stage personality. Gay men adored Garland because they could identify with her in a cultural and historical phase when they were exclusively ignored and given negative connotations. John M. Clum describes Minnelli as Garland's obvious heir, and even points out that Garland wanted her daughter to be her own successor for her fan base.158 Hard work, determination, her inherent talent, and her constant desire to prove herself worthy of the diva label are what make Minnelli cling to the notion of diva.159 James Leve does not make a clear distinction between an acting role, Rosenberg's queer diva or Bronfen's diva. But he points out exactly what Minnelli's persona is about: recognition in a role that she fears she will not be able to fulfill. With every performative act on stage, she confronts this fear and wants to prove to us that she can conquer the role of a diva. According to Molly Haskell, it takes sheer will, talent and charisma for a star to produce images of emotional and intellectual power.160 This point of view, which Dyer classifies as intellectually not very respectable, also plays a role in Minnelli's image of the queer diva.

Minnelli's star body reflects a conflict. Her stage personality, the stylized survival artist, contradicts her “screen persona”, which has developed from a youthful rebel to a vamp and then to a representative of Classical Hollywood. As a one-dimensional "heiress", as "Hollywood's princess", Minnelli advanced more and more to a mere reproduction of her mother and thus a caricature of herself. Although her image loosened in the 1980s161, her star body permanently distorted into the cliché. In addition, her star body, despite or because of its distortion, is extremely dominant. He makes the actress fade due to her theatrical, exaggerated, melodramatic persona. Her star body overshadowed all the post-movie projects New York, New York (1977) followed because it finally sealed his cliché. This makes it difficult for the viewer, for example, to appreciate her acting achievements in later films. He no longer sees the actress, but only the star Liza Minnelli. Had Minnelli immediately after hers Cabaret -World success was initially considered one of the box office-rich female Hollywood stars, destroyed New York, New York as a third flop as a result of this reputation and brought her film career to a standstill.162 Her biographer, Wendy Leigh, complains in this context that Minnelli was never able to acquire film rights for herself as a star and to be the producer or director of her own films.163 In doing so, she used the cliché of the Hollywood princess, the dependent daughter of a director, for whom no space was provided in New Hollywood when a star was on her own.164 But only in the film industry. The interest in the theater actress remained unbroken and could be explained, for example, with Minnelli's performative practices for producing her presence and persona. B. in an excerpt from Charles Isherwood's 1999 review (p. 30), which has repeatedly impressed the audience and the critics and which expresses itself in its already mentioned special position as a chanteuse of the musical genre, who forms an extremely close bond with its audience . "She is one of those people you have to see live in order to understand the power that she has. Something happens to her. When she gets on the stage, she can be a tigress "165to quote actress Jenna Russell in this regard. This coincides with Minnelli's self-image as an “actress in music”, which is about an exchange with the audience, about a dialogue that functions like a tennis game.166 An examination of Minnelli's vocal and physical signs and performative practices would explain their presence and thus that part of their attraction that is not based solely on their persona and their medial origin.

But the stage actress alone does not seem to be convincing. Your performance in Chicago evaluated the New York Post as "amateur"167, at The rink The majority of the audience found it problematic to accept Minnelli in her role168 and the reactions of viewers and critics to their performance in Victor / Victoria turned out to be very mixed169. Similar to film, in the theater too the star displaces the actress, the worker170. Its attraction can be traced by examining its genesis. At first glance it may seem superficial to shed light on such big terms as star, image, persona, diva and icon on a few pages, but they are necessary in the context of discourse analysis in order to understand the problem of the construction of the star. They are mutually dependent and call for the concept of the star concept in the sense of a planning draft to be updated, which can still be staged thanks to the reception of the gay community; It was primarily their reception of the staged concept that constructed the star body. Liza Minnelli's medial background runs like a red thread through her theater, film, television and music works; her stage personality reflects her image and enriches her status as a queer diva, more precisely as a gay icon who wants to conquer the diva role. Both her "screen persona" and her stage personality are a constant self-reflective game with role models such as Louise Brooks, Marlene Dietrich, Judy Garland, Édith Piaf, who were and are also gay icons and whose images, personalities and iconic effects Minnelli in front of the camera and consciously or unconsciously quoted on stage and evoked because of their own appearance, their medial origins, their role biography and their repertoire. Minnelli's contradictions are expressed in the fact that she attracts the theater audience, although she did not become a star at the theater: It is the (former) film star who deals with the persona and the queer diva in the media of theater, film, television and Music has interconnected and, due to its diverse media expressions and its socio-cultural significance, developed a magnetic force and guaranteed commercial success. The interest of the gay public in his icon remains unbroken. The star concept Liza Minnelli is highly theatrical because it is staged in interplay with the gay community - the queer diva stages itself as and through the survivor. The gay audience cultivates this auratic relationship171 with Minnelli, of whom Hickethier speaks, in the form of identification and imitation alike. It consumes172 the stylized survival artist who, with her glittering sequin costumes, brings light into the lives of her audience and celebrates her struggle for survival on stage - a struggle for survival that the gay community still has to fight today because hate crimes and violations of human rights are still going on around the world including homophobia and the beating and murder of gays173. The gay icon Liza Minnelli reflects the outsider status of her followers: Born into the establishment of Classical Hollywood, she wanted to fight for a special status right from the start with her work at the theater and with her early roles in film in order to distance herself from her parents. She celebrates the rise of her star as a performer in the sense of a glamorous, brilliant transformation and shows her audience that a struggle for survival as an outsider can lead to fame and glamor and thus to excessive recognition.

12 Bibliography and sources

12.1 Secondary literature

Basinger, Jeanine (2007): The Star Machine. New York: button.

Bonnermeier, Andreas (2002): Female voices in the French chanson and in the Italian canzone. A genre and its interpreters. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač. (Series of publications Romance studies.)

Bronfen, Elisabeth / Straumann, Barbara (2002): The diva. A story of admiration. Munich: Schirmer / Mosel.

Brooks, Louise (1986): Lulu in Berlin and Hollywood. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag.

Carrick, Peter (1993): Liza Minnelli. London: Robert Hale Limited.

Cavell, Stanley (1979): The World Viewed. Reflections on the Ontology of Film. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Dyer, Richard (1979): Stars. London: British Film Institute. Reprint from 1992.

Everett, William A./Laird, Paul R. (2008): Historical dictionary of the Broadway musical. Lanham: Scarecrow Press.

Freedland, Michael (1990): Liza Minnelli. Your films - your life. Munich: Heyne film library.

Grafe, Frieda (1980): “The picture of Marlene and how it became her image.” In: Sudendorf, Werner (ed.): Marlene Dietrich. Documents. Essays. Movies. Frankfurt / Berlin / Vienna: Ullstein, pp. 51–62.

Haucker, Lutz (1999): “Masquerade of Femininity. Considerations for an exhibition project about divas, stars, antistars and newcomers. "In: Heller, Heinz B./Prümm, Karl / Peulings, Birgit (eds.): The body in the picture: acting - representing - appearing. Marburg: Schüren, pp. 153-182.

Heinzlmeier, Adolf / Schulz, Bernd / Witte, Karsten (1982): The immortals of cinema. The stars since 1960. Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH.

Hickethier, Knut (1997): “From theater star to film star. Characteristics of the star being at the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century. ”In: Faulstich, Werner / Korte, Helmut (ed.): The star. History - reception - meaning. Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, pp. 29–47.

Hischak, Thomas S. (1999): The American Musical Film Song Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut / London: Greenwood Press.

Hischak, Thomas S. (1995): The American Musical Theater Song Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut / London: Greenwood Press.

Huegel, Hans-Otto (2007): Praise the mainstream. On the concept and history of entertainment and popular culture. Cologne: Halem.

Hügel, Hans-Otto (2004): “'Do you know how many stars there are?‘ On the concept, function and history of the star. ”In: Bullerjahn, Claudia / Löffler, Wolfgang (ed.): Musician myths. Everyday theories, legends and media presentations. Hildesheim: Olms, pp. 265-293.

Jewell, Richard B. (2007): The Golden Age of Cinema. Hollywood, 1929-1945. Malden / Oxford / Carlton: Blackwell Publishing.

Keyser, Herbert K. (2009): Geniuses of the American Musical Theater. New York: Hal Leonard Corporation.

Kluge, Friedrich (2011): Etymological dictionary of the German language. Edited by Elmar Seebold. 25th edition. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Knapp, Raymond (2005): The American musical and the formation of national identity. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Kraif, Ursula (Red.) (2007): Duden. The big foreign dictionary. 4th edition. Mannheim / Leipzig / Vienna / Zurich: Dudenverlag, p. 752.

Leigh, Wendy (1995): Liza. The life of Liza Minnelli. Weinheim / Berlin: Quadriga publishing house.

Leve, James (2009): Kander and Ebb. New Haven / London: Yale University Press.

Levy, Emanuel (2009): Vincente Minnelli: Hollywood’s dark dreamer. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Maslon, Laurence (2010): Broadway: the American musical. New York City: Applause Theater & Cinema Books.

McElhaney, Joe (2006): The Death of Classical Cinema. Hitchcock, Lang, Minnelli. Albany: State University of New York Press.

McElhaney, Joe (eds.) (2009): Vincente Minnelli: the art of entertainment. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Monaco, James (2009): Understand film. Art, technology, language, history and theory of film and new media. Reinbek near Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag.

Mordden, Ethan (2002): Open a new window: the Broadway musical in the 1960s. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Morrison, James (Ed.) (2010): Hollywood reborn: movie stars of the 1970s. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

Lowry, Stephen / Korte, Helmut (2000): The filmstar. Stuttgart / Weimar: Verlag J. B. Metzler.

McDonald, Paul (2000): The star system. Hollywood and the production of popular identities. London: Wallflower Press.

Rosenberg, Tiina (2009): "Voices of the queer divas: Pants roles in the opera and Zarah Leander on the hit stage." In: Kolesch, Doris / Pinto, Vito / Schrödl, Jenny (eds.): Voice worlds. Philosophical, media-theoretical and aesthetic perspectives. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, pp. 189-211.

Schechter, Scott (2004): The Liza Minnelli Scrapbook. New York City: Citadel.

Schneider, Steven Jay (ed.) (2011): 1001 films you should see before life is over. Zurich: Edition Olms AG.

Werner, Paul / Steen, Uta van (1986): Hollywood rebel. 13 portraits of obstinacy. Frankfurt: tende.

12.2 Internet sources

Adler, Renata: "The Quietly Desperate World of 'Charlie Bubbles,' Famous Writer: Albert Finney Directs and Starts at Sutton Shelagh Delaney Story Is a Calm 'Blow-Up'." In: The New York Times. February 12, 1968. http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9904E6DE1138E134BC4A52DFB4668383679EDE [05/30/2018].

Coates, Tyler: "Liza Minnelli Ruined Sally Bowles for Literally Every Other Actress." In: Decider. 3/12/2015. http://decider.com/2015/03/12/liza-minnelli-sally-bowles-cabaret/ [30.5.2018].

Cooke, Dewi: "Trevor Ashley drags Liza Minnelli back to Broadway." In: The Sydney Morning Herald. October 31, 2015. http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/whats-on-melbourne/trevor-ashley-drags-liza-minelli-back-to-broadway-20151020-gkdm05 [6/18/2018].

Ferrara, Denis / Smith, Liz: "LIZ SMITH: Tell Me That You Love Me." In: New York Social Diary. 8.8.2016. http://www.newyorksocialdiary.com/guest-diary/2016/liz-smith-tell-me-that-you-love-me [30.5.2018].

Isherwood, Charles: "Review: 'Minnelli on Minnelli". "In: Variety. December 8, 1999. http://variety.com/1999/legit/reviews/minnelli-on-minnelli-1200460074/ [31.5.2018].

Musto, Michael: "The 12 Greatest Female Gay Icons of All Time." In: Out. August 25, 2014. https://www.out.com/entertainment/michael-musto/2014/08/25/12-greatest-female-gay-icons-all-time-also-nathan-matthew [6/18/2018]

Love, Catherine: "Jenna Russell: my life in five shows." In: The Guardian. February 25, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2015/feb/25/jenna-russell-my-life-in-five-shows-stephen-sondheim-liza-minnelli [5.6.2018].

Nicodemus, Katja: "Off like a rocket: Wrrrommm!" In: Time online. 7.5.2009. http://www.zeit.de/2009/20/KS-Minnelli/komplettansicht [May 30, 2018].

Schlichter, Ansgar / Bruns, Katja / Meyer, Heinz-Hermann: "Persona." In: Lexicon of film terms Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. 8/24/2014. http://filmlexikon.uni-kiel.de/index.php?action=lexikon&tag=det&id=8575 [4.6.2018].

Shenton, Mark: “Trevor Ashley to Reprise Liza (on An E) for Short U.K. Tour Including West End Date. "In: Playbill. August 29, 2013. http://www.playbill.com/article/trevor-ashley-to-reprise-liza-on-an-e-for-short-uk-tour-including-west-end-date-com-208967 [18.6. 2018].

Stanley, Alessandra: "In 'Liza with a Z,‘ a Broadway Baby Knocks ‘Em Dead." In: The New York Times. March 31, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/31/arts/television/31liza.html?n=Top/Reference/Times%2520Topics/People/M/Minnelli,%2520Liza [30.5.2018].

Viagas, Robert: "Playbill Critics Circle: Your Reviews of Liza Minnelli in V / V." In: Playbill. January 22, 1997. http://www.playbill.com/article/playbill-critics-circle-your-reviews-of-liza-minnelli-in-v-v-com-329082 [11.6.2018]

Winkler, Kevin: "Liza with a P: Revisiting Minnelli’s 1980s Collaboration with the Pet Shop Boys." In: The Huffington Post. 12/22/2017.https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/liza-with-a-p-revisiting-minnellis-1980s-collaboration_us_5a3adc15e4b06cd2bd03d79f?ncid=engmodushpmg00000004 [1.6.2018].

Wulff, Hans Jürgen: "Ingénue." In: Lexicon of film terms Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. January 19, 2012. http://filmlexikon.uni-kiel.de/index.php?action=lexikon&tag=det&id=584 [27.5.2018].

Wulff, Hans-Jürgen: "Typage." In: Lexicon of film terms Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. July 22, 2011. http://filmlexikon.uni-kiel.de/index.php?action=lexikon&tag=det&id=1630 [25.5.2018].

Wulff, Hans Jürgen / Bruns, Katja: "Hollywood icon." In: Lexicon of film terms Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. June 15, 2016. http://filmlexikon.uni-kiel.de/index.php?action=lexikon&tag=det&id=1630 [5.6.2018].

Zander, Peter: "I only ever used Chaplin's name." In: World culture. July 15, 2011. https://www.welt.de/kultur/article13480515/Ich-habe-Chaplins-Namen-immer-nur-ausgenutzt.html [4.6.2018].

"AFI’s 50 Greatest American Screen Legends." In: American Film Institute. http://www.afi.com/100Years/stars.aspx [5/30/2018].

"Drama Desk Awards 2008-2009 nominations announced." In: NewYorkTheatreGuide.com. April 27, 2009. https://www.newyorktheatreguide.com/news-features/drama-desk-awards-2008-2009-nominations-announced [5.6.2018].

“Geraldine Chaplin. Life & Work. "In: kino.de. https://www.kino.de/star/geraldine-chaplin/ [4.6.2018].

"Happy 50th Anniversary to FLORA THE RED MENACE." In: Broadwayworld.com. http://www.broadwayworld.com/board/readmessage.php?thread=1082989 [05/30/2018].

"Liza Minnelli - Cabaret (1972) - My Lord" In: YouTube.com. 1.8.2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-_dH5Ul1UQ [4.6.2018].

"The Greatest Gay Icons in Music." In: ranker.com. 2018. https://www.ranker.com/list/greatest-gay-icons-in-music/celebrity-lists [23.6.2018].

12.3 Image Sources

Illustration 1:

Figure not included in this excerpt

"Liza Minnelli in Cabaret (1972), Allied Artists Picture." In: Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0068327/mediaviewer/rm3806017024 [4.6.2018].

Figure 2:

Figure not included in this excerpt

"Liza Minnelli at‘ Night of 100 Stars ’."

In: Getty Images. https://www.gettyimages.de/detail/nachrichtenfoto/liza-minnelli-at-night-of-100-stars-at-radio-city-nachrichtenfoto/578959093#/liza-minnelli-at-night-of-100 -stars-at-radio-city-music-hall-circa-picture-id578959093 [18.6.2018].

Figure 3:

Figure not included in this excerpt

"63 year old LIZA MINELLI rocks the Hollywood Bowl ...". In: Hollywood’s theartiste. 2.9.2009. http://covenantartists.blogspot.com/2009/09/63-year-old-liza-minelli-rocks.html [6/18/2018].

13 Appendix: Suggestion of a diagram for the star concept

parent Judy Garland Vincente Minnelli

media origin Vaudeville Theater

Medium / media environment Film (Classical Hollywood)

genre Film musical

task Performer director

Image / media status Ingénue "virtual father"

social-cultural status Gay icon bisexual / gay

Daughter / "product" Liza Minnelli

Name + biography + media origin = first half of the star concept, private and public person (media person174 )

1. theatre = Key to a serious professional career as an actress,

Introduction of the media person

2. Movie = Manifestation of the star body à Film musical, gay icon,

role playing game

3. watch TV = Interface, staging of the image as a musical icon

4. music = Interface

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = second half of the star concept, manpower175


1 See Dyer, Richard (1979): Stars. London: British Film Institute. Reprint from 1992, p. 18.

2 See Dyer 1979, p. 18, quoted in Jarvie.

3 See ibid., P. 22f.

4 See Coates, Tyler: "Liza Minnelli Ruined Sally Bowles for Literally Every Other Actress." In: Decider. 3/12/2015. http://decider.com/2015/03/12/liza-minnelli-sally-bowles-cabaret/ [30.5.2018].

5 "Drama Desk Awards 2008-2009 nominations announced." In: NewYorkTheatreGuide.com. April 27, 2009. https://www.newyorktheatreguide.com/news-features/drama-desk-awards-2008-2009-nominations-announced [5.6.2018].