People fail in the vtu project

Value of Failure! Students Course! Module 4: Prevent failure!

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1 Value of Failure Students Course Module 4: Preventing failure

2 Module 4: Preventing failure Contents 1. Project management 2. Basics of risk management

3 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management project: The black box of project management Project idea Project management Completion / implementation Project management processes and instruments support the project manager and the team in the organization, evaluation and implementation

4 Modules 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management project: What is a project Elements of projects A project contains something new Has a beginning and an end Are often interdisciplinary and combine different tasks

5 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management background: What is project management? Definition The assignment of knowledge, know-how, skills, instruments, resources and techniques to project activities with the aim of meeting the expectations of the project. Project management is the process of defining, planning, organizing, guiding and controlling the progress of a project. Central elements of project management Project goals Project results Strategy plan Roles and responsibilities Communication processes Work processes

6 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management background: Why project management? The sense of project management instruments Focuses on the right processes and enables effective and efficient work. Helps to identify the required resources and steps. Defines who has to do what and in what time frame. Reduces confusion, frustration and errors

7 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Framework of projects: Initiation Preparation and planning Implementation and control Completion Control Goal management Time management Start-up definition / goals / required resources Planning and allocation of resources Resource management (time, costs, people) Result management Quality management Reporting Completion and completion of supplier management review risk management communication management

8 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Phases of project management: Four different phases 1. Initiation 2. Preparation and planning 3. Implementation and control 4. Completion

9 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Phases of project management: Phase 1 Initiation Description of activities to set the basic objectives, size and complexity of the project Depending on the project, some of the following activities may not be necessary Stakeholders Development of an initiation plan Definition of management processes Establishment of project management and development of the necessary manuals and templates

10 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Phases of project management: Phase 2 Preparation and planning Description The preparation includes the definition and planning of project costs and time planning. Project planning should be carried out at the beginning and at the end of each project phase. Project planning includes all tasks necessary for sub-steps of the project to carry out measures Description of the project goals and possible alternatives Breaking down the goals into individual work steps Development of a resource plan Development of a milestone plan Development of a communication plan Definition of standards and processes Identification of possible risks

11 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Phases of project management: Phase 3 Implementation and control Description Phase in which the previously developed plans are implemented The better the quality of the planning, the more likely a successful implementation. Measures Implementation of the planned measures Continuous monitoring of progress Monitoring of deviations from the original plan, revision of the plan where necessary, communication of progress

12 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Phases of project management: Phase 4 Completion Description Final phase of project management The project is not finished until it is correctly completed The conclusion often determines success or failure Projects can be planned or unplanned. Measures Completion of the project Implementation a final success controlling communication of the project results

13 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project Management Important Instruments: Instruments for Successful Project Management Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Gantt Charts Network Diagrams (PERT / CPM)

14 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Important instruments: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Description Projects must be divided into manageable sub-steps that can be carried out in a logical sequence. This definition of the tasks is also called Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) WBS is a necessary prerequisite for successful project work and for the development of time and resource planning

15 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Important instruments: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Example (IT project) Phasef Duration in days Number of resources 1.0 Planning phase 1.1 Definition of the problem Meeting with users Definition of the project objective Development of a business statement Description of the Necessary resources Development of a rough project plan Development of time planning Development of work breakdown structure Development of resource plans Development of PERT chart and Gantt chart 2 2

16 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Important instruments: GANTT Chart Description Graphic representation of the project, which shows each task as a horizontal line with the required duration for completion. Describes the project schedule the individual tasks result from the horizontal representation of each task. In order to reduce complexity, tasks are grouped into bundles in large projects, otherwise the clarity is lost

17 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project Management Important instruments: GANTT Chart Example Tasks A R & D / Testing Specific Aims Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May June 1 AIM 1: Prototype Development (eg) 1,1 Sub Task 1, 2 Sub Task 2 AIM 2: Proof of Principle Studies (eg) 2.1 - initial experiment A 2.2 - initial experiment B 3 AIM 3 3.1 Sub Task 3.2 Sub Task 4 AIM 4 4.1 Sub Task 4 , 2 Sub Task B IP / Commercialization Strategy 1 Goal 1: IP / Commercialization Meeting (eg) 2 Goal 2: Provisional patent filing (eg) 3 Goal 3: etc C Regulatory Strategy 1 Goal 1: Initial Regulatory Planning w Consultant 2 Goal 2 : Pre-IDE / Kickoff Meeting w FDA 3 Goal 3: Regulatory Submission D Follow on Funding Plan 1 Business Plan Development 2 Apply for additional grant (s) (A, B, C) (eg) 3 Engage Commercial partner 4 Sub Task Completed Projected

18 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Important instruments: Network diagram Description Graphic representation of the project tasks and their relationships Shows critical paths that are essential for project fulfillment

19 Module 4: Preventing Failure 1. Project management Important tools: Network diagram Example: House construction 6 Pour basement floor Install rough electrical & plumbing 7 Install cooling & heating 8 Install drywall 11 Install finished plumbing 1 Excavate & 2 pour footings Pour foundation Install drains 3 Erect frame & roof 4 Lay brickwork 5 9 Finish roof Lay flooring 10 Finish carpeting Install kitchen equipment Paint Finish electrical work Lay storm drains Install roof drainage Finish grading Finish floors Pour walks; Landscape 18

20 Module 4: Preventing Failure Contents 1. Project management 2. Basics of risk management

21 Module 4: Preventing Failure 2. Basics of risk management Definitions: Important terms Risk: Risks are potential events that have a negative impact on tasks or projects (e.g. security, costs, schedule, etc.). Complex function of probabilities, consequences and susceptibility risks Reduced but never eliminated Risk identification and analysis: Systematic approaches to: Identify hazards Quantify risks Risk analysis is teamwork In principle, experts from different backgrounds should be consulted to counter risks as comprehensively as possible

22 Module 4: Preventing Failure 2. Fundamentals of Risk Management Definitions: Important Terms Risk Management Risk management encompasses the careful control of risks and measures for risk reduction

23 Module 4: Preventing Failure 2. Basics of Risk Management Risk Management: What is it about? Risk management Risk management is a continuous and iterative decision-making technique to increase the likelihood of a previously defined success Identifies risks Describes the likelihood of occurrence Describes the consequences of risks Prioritizes / arranges risks Monitors the progress to monitor the success of risk reduction measures Communicates the status of risks Above Conducted throughout the project Source: NASA SE Handbook 1995 section 4.6

24 Source: Lisa Guerra of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Module 4: Preventing Failure 2. Basics of Risk Management Risk Management: Types of Risks (Example of NASA Space Shuttle Missions) Risk Technical Performance Costs Policy Schedule Reliability Certificates Examples Technical Specifications are not achieved Risk not Remaining in the budget plan Risk of losing political support Critical timeframes are not adhered to Unreliable project work Necessary certificates are not available / will not be achieved Security Critical material defects

25 Source: Lisa Guerra of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Module 4: Preventing Failure 2. Basics of Risk Management Risk Identification: How Can Risks Be Identified? Possible sources for identifying risks Risks can be uncovered by the project team, external experts or past experiences. Past experiences should be used systematically. So-called trigger questions, questions that question the project plan or specific solutions, are used to draw on past experiences. Risk identification is a permanent task The most important Risks should be continuously monitored

26 Source: Lisa Guerra of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Module 4: Preventing Failure 2. Basics of Risk Management Risk Identification: Learning from the Past Examples of Trigger Questions Are there prerequisites for project success that involve high risks even with minor changes? Are there prerequisites / goals that advance into unknown territory? Has the planning been checked by an external body? Is the schedule feasible? Are there many critical paths?

27 Source: Lisa Guerra of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Module 4: Preventing Failure 2. Basics of risk management Risk identification: While some projects involve very specific risks, all projects also have common risks Examples Technical complexity Organizational complexity Inadequate planning Unrealistic timing Overambitious implementation (design etc.) Inadequate processes Bad staff etc.

28 Module 4: Preventing Failure Summary What we have discussed today Project management techniques Technical risk management tools such as GANTT charts, WBS, network diagrams Thank you very much for your attention

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