Monologue or dialogue
Dialog: Change speech of the characters, the conversation in the drama.
In drama, the term dialogue means the conversation between the characters. It doesn't matter whether two or more characters speak to one another, or whether communication and understanding are successful. It is crucial that the characters' words are addressed to the stage staff and that they (should) be heard by them within the fictional level. Dramatic dialogue is every conversation scene in the play; the dialogue is part of the main text.
The dialogue in drama is to be distinguished from its own type of text 'dialogue', as was already used in ancient philosophy. There a specific subject is negotiated in a staged conversation without the text suggesting a performance situation.
Monologue: Self-talk of a stage character, mainly aimed at the speaking person, their situation and their conflict, not addressed to other stage characters.
In a narrow sense, the monologue in the drama means a scene in which only one stage character speaks and shows himself in her inner confrontation with her own situation or conflict. Although several options for action can be discussed, action does not take place here, but a decision is made that then drives action again.
Although the speaking individual can be entangled in emotions and accordingly not be able to completely objectify his own situation, the monologue always marks a certain distance from the situation, since speaking is a rationalization. In addition, in this sense, the monologue has a certain coherence in terms of content, in that it only refers to the speaking figure. Because the character negotiates with himself in principle and only the audience who is not present on the fictional level of the character listens, the monologue understood in this way has only one level of reference.
In a broader sense, monological sections in drama can be understood as any lengthy utterance by a stage character that is used for information or commentary. Then not only pro and epilogue fall under this term, but also longer reports (messenger report, pondoscopy) or short utterances such as the a-parte speaking (link to your own entry?) Or turns of a character to the audience.
While monologues bring a character particularly close to the audience, they also offer the actor the opportunity to distinguish himself and his skills. Accordingly, monologues are often designed in a formal deviation from the rest of the drama text, e.g. in lyrical form (classical, romantic).
The monologue has been part of the inventory of drama since antiquity, it was only pushed back with naturalism. In the drama of the turn of the century, however, it again took on a central role because it seemed particularly suitable to show the isolation of the individual and to shape the problematization of the 'I' (monodrama).
In the 20th century it was partially replaced by various directing techniques, an increased use of gestures, facial expressions and symbolism (light, color, etc.).
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