What does regression mean
The term "regression" comes from Latin and means the receding of a sea, which is due to fluctuations in the sea level. Sigmund Freud defines the term as a defense mechanism that leads to neurosis. Defense mechanisms are caused by the reactivation of older behaviors (cf. Duden 1967, p. 669; keyword: regression).
Regression means going backwards and forwards, both in the sense of regression as atrophy and degeneration, as well as going back to earlier stages of development (cf. Dorsch, 1976, p. 500).
Regression can be an pursuit of remaining a young child. Gradually, regressions emerge again and again as difficulties are overcome. Sigmund Freud describes these behaviors as "defense mechanisms" (cf. Lersch, Sander & Thomae, 1959, p. 463).
"Statistical regression is a methodological artifact which leads to the fact that, with repeated measurements, extreme measured values tend towards the mean value of the reference population" (Strube, 1996, p. 572).
Regression is understood to mean a return to earlier forms of development of thinking, object relationships and the structuring of behavior (cf. Laplanche, Pontalis, 1972, p. 436).
Regression in Psychoanalysis
If a person is confronted with any obstacle in his actions or strivings in life, there are theoretically two possibilities: Either he overcomes the obstacle or he fails. Psychoanalysis was able to provide evidence that in the second case people generally do not simply go back to the agenda, but rather regress in response to their experience of frustration, i.e. express a behavior that corresponds to a developmentally (genetically) earlier stage. This regression is so far a Defense Mechanismwhen it apparently serves to prevent the feelings of inferiority, guilt and fear associated with failure from coming into consciousness. The conscious confrontation with this stressful content is to a certain extent covered over by a childish substitute act.
In addition to these regressions, which act as a defense mechanism and in so far as a neurotic are to be considered, there are a number of regressive actions and ways of life that serve to maintain psychological equilibrium. Such legitimate ’regressions are e.g. B. the sleep, the sexual experience, the game, the irrelevant fooling around or the screaming in the ice arena. The depth psychology Oriented anthropologists tend to view psychological events as an interplay in which light and shadow, purposefulness and laissez-faire, rational and irrational, fulfillment of duty and gain in pleasure should balance each other. Accordingly, all possible forms of regression (the specific choice is a question of style) are the necessary compensation for progressive behavior: for goal-oriented, rational life activity subject to the given order.
Regression on reading - jumping back in the text
Regression means, in connection with reading, the eyes jumping back in the text, whereby a large part of the concentration and time is therefore lost on searching for the right passage in the text. In addition, when the eyes jump back, the inner structure of the sentences is sometimes lost, because if you jump two lines back in the middle of a sentence, the flow of the text can also get confused and the brain is so irritated that you are subsequently mentally wandering completely.
Brühlmeier, Arthur (2011). The psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud.
WWW: http://www.bruehlmeier.info/freud.htm (11-11-01)
Dorsch, F. (1976). Psychological dictionary. Bern: Verlag Hans Huber.
Duden (1967). The large Duden lexicon in eight volumes. 3. Edition. Stuttgart: Verlag Hans Hug.
Fellner, Richard L. (2004). The psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud.
WWW: http://www.psychotherapiepraxis.at/artikel/psychoanalyse/psychoanalyse.phtml (09-05-21)
Laplanche J. & Pontalis J.-B. (1972). The vocabulary of psychoanalysis. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.
Lersch Ph., Sander F. & Thomae H. (1959). Manual of Psychology. Göttingen: Publishing house for psychology.
Strube, G. (1996). Dictionary of Cognitive Science. Stuttgart: Velcro Cotta.
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